Manataka American Indian Council           Volume XII  Issue 4 APRIL 2008


Manataka - Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow 






Legends of Old: Dog Chief - Blackfoot Legend
Feature Story: To Walk the Red Road

Letters to the Editor:

Manataka Get 'Em All
Organic Consumers: Organic and Natural Care Products
Elder's Meditations: Don Jose Matusuwa, Huichol

Indian Opinion:

Trust Decision: Ignoring History,,,
Health: Treating Cancer -- With Herbs
Plant Medicine: Red Raspberries...Yummmy!
Fluoride: World Council of Elders Takes a Stand Against Fluoride
Animal Rights and Wrongs: A Yellowstone's buffalo under siege
Endangered Sacred Sites: America's oldest urban site






A Blackfoot Legend





Once there was a very nice girl the daughter of a head man, and many young men sought her for a wife. One of the men in the camp owned a very large dog. It was a brindle. One time this girl borrowed this dog, hitched him to a travois, and went out for wood.


After this she borrowed him many times, and he became used to her. Whenever he came about she always fed him and petted him, and whenever she went for water he went with her.


One day as the girl was going along she said aloud, "I wish you were a young man, then I would marry you." Now the dog heard and understood. That night he turned
himself into a man and went to the lodge where the girl was sleeping. She
awoke and found some one kissing her. She put out her hand, felt the man,
and noted that his hair was fine and that he had finely shaped limbs. When
he went away she wondered who it could be.


She never had anything to do with other men. She had two brothers, and for that reason she did not wish to say anything about it. She thought the person might have been one of her suitors. So she thought to herself, "If he comes, next time I will mark him." So that evening she took some white earth, mixed it with water in a cup, and stirred it with a stick-weed. That night the strange visitor came again, and, as he caressed the girl, she rubbed some of the white earth on his hair, on his robe, and on his back.







To Walk the Red Road




The Red Road is a long road winding began in the stars, spilled onto the mountain tops, was carried in the snow to the streams, to the rivers, to the ocean… It covers Canada, Alaska, America, Mexico to Guatemala, and keeps winding around the Indigenous.

The Red Road is a circle of people standing hand in hand, people in this world, people between people in the Spirit world, star people, animal people, stone people, river people, tree people… The Sacred Hoop.


To walk the Red Road is to know sacrifice, suffering. It is to understand humility. It is the ability to stand naked before the Creator in all things for your wrong doings, for your lack of strength, for your uncompassionate way, for your arrogance - because to walk the Red Road, you always know you can do better. And you know, when you do good things, it is through the Creator, and you are grateful.


To walk the Red Road is to know you stand on equal ground with all living things. It is to know that because you were born human, it gives you superiority over nothing. It is to know that every creation carries a Spirit, and the river knows more than you do, the mountains know more than you do, the stone people know more than you do, the trees know more than you do, the wind is wiser than you are, and animal people carry wisdom.

You can learn from every one of them, because they have something you don't. They are void of evil thoughts. They wish vengeance on no one, they seek Justice.
To Walk the Red Road, you have given rights. You have the right to pray, you have the right to dance, you have the right to think, you have the right to protect, you have the right to know Mother Earth, you have the right to dream, you have the right to vision, you have the right to teach, you have the right to learn, you have a right to grieve, you have a right to happiness, you have the right to fix the wrongs, you have the right to truth, you have a right to the Spirit World.

To Walk the Red Road is to know your Ancestors, to call to them for assistance. It is to know that there is good medicine, and there is bad medicine. It is to know that Evil exists, but is cowardly, as it is often in disguise. It is to know there are evil spirits who are in constant watch for a way to gain strength for themselves at the expense of you.


To Walk the Red Road, you have less fear of being wrong, because you know that life is a journey, a continuous circle, a sacred Hoop. Mistakes will be made, and mistakes can be corrected - if you will be humble, for if you cannot be humble, you will never know when you have made a mistake. If you walk the Red Road, you know that every sorrow leads to a better understanding, every horror cannot be explained, but can offer growth.


To Walk the Red Road is to look for beauty in all things.


To Walk the Red Road is to know you will one day cross to the Spirit World, and you will not be afraid.


~Submitted by Bruce Soaring Eagle Thompson and Helen Redwing Vinson








Manataka receives dozens of letters each week. Space does not allow us to publish all letters but we make a concerted effort to print letters that are representative of a majority. Let us know if there is a topic you feel needs to be addressed.


Smoke Signal Sings


Thank you with all my heart for the Smoke Signal.  Every time I read the smoke signal, it sings inside my heart and soul so strongly that it makes me weep. So, dear ones, thank you with all my heart for taking the trouble to put this together, so that we ALL may learn from you, the wise ones.


Blessings, Jennie Lull


Smoke Signal Brings Balance


My spirit was weary and I out of balance. I was listless looking for a distraction. I found the poetry section of the site. The poems are incredibly beautiful and when I finished reading them I felt refreshed, renewed. I thank all those who had a part in having those poems there for me tonite.


Love and prayers always, Ruth King

Smoke Signal Goes With the Flow

I loved the piece on "Goin' with the Flow" in March Smoke Signal about water versus a rigid mental outlook .... I was born during the Strong Sun Moon, but I am also a "water" sign ... have learned many food lessons from Water.

~ Kim Summer Moon


Animal Shelter Needs Volunteers


Best Friends Of North Central AR needs volunteers located anywhere in the state of Arkansas.  We know every Manataka member is an animal lover so we ask for your help. We are looking for a motor home or  bus to make in to a mobile unit so we can set up at disaster centers and be able to take in pets that are not allowed in to the human disaster shelters.  Please check out our web site.  Thank you.


Lynne Wilborn Field Coordinator

Best Friends of North Central Arkansas
184 Hammock Lane, Yellville, AR 72687
(870) 449-6750


Global Love Day


Love is such a beautiful expression.  When we feel the passion of romance, the gentle touch of kindness, or the simple gaze of a willing smile, we are lifted into a higher awareness of life’s potential.  In these precious moments, the impossible melts into infinity itself where all things are possible.  We instantly remember what matters most is this love that unites us and assures us that all is well.


At the core of our being, we intuitively know we are love.  Not just an external expression of love that we equate or define as a loving act, rather the grander love that is unconditional.  This love knows no bounds or limits, causes our heart to beat, our body to feel and our mind to think.  It animates us and inspires us.  Such boundless love literally gives us the freedom to explore the very depths of our reality.  Without it, we cease to exist.  With it, we soar to amazing heights of experience.


Love is silent, yet beckons each moment.  This is not a paradox, it is an invitation.  Love does not intrude since it is ever present.  It merely calls to us and asks that it be included in our awareness through every thought, feeling, word, deed and action.  What could be easier?


In this physical world we have become so far removed from this intrinsic aspect of our nature that we have forgotten its existence and importance.  Instead, we frequently replace true love with our sensory notions and expectations and limit our expression to a few physiological, mental and emotional acrobatics.  These demonstrations are an artificial version of love and are symbolic tokens at best.  Naturally, they contain the seeds of a grander love; however we usually do not nurture or cultivate unconditional love long enough to experience its potential in us or our relationships.


Who among us is courageous enough to remember the truth of love?  Shall we be so brave as to be the first to embrace and accept ourselves as potent beings of love?  Are we willing to share this limitless expression to each and every one around us - without expectation of anything in return?  Can we be so bold as to forgive?  So outrageous as to accept and embrace the same potential of love in others?


As we grow through life, let us contemplate and invoke this grander love.


Love, light and peace,

Harold W. Becker

President and Founder

The Love Foundation, Inc.
"Inspiring People to Love Unconditionally"


Think:           Global Love Day

Feel:               Love Begins With Me

Remember: May 1, 2008


Cloning and Genetically-modified Food


I'm reading with great interest the Smoke Signal article about the animal cloning issue ... this has been bothering me for a long time. I had written you a few days ago about the issue of slaughterhouses and animal welfare, though my thoughts were a bit disorganized at the time for the wording. Yes, it involves factory farming and all the abuses that go on.

I realized yesterday that, if it comes from the Earth, I can eat with a 'clear' conscience. This means legumes, grains, and veggies/fruits (a typical vegan diet). I know there is a whole issue with genetically-modified foods as well ... It seems impossible to eliminate all participation in the suffering and destruction of living beings and the earth with our lifestyles. It was Colleen from Compassionate Cooks who said, "Don't do nothing just because you can't do everything. Do what you can, make changes where you can." So I do what I can to try to limit my impact ("footprint") on the Earth and to limit my participation in the suffering of animals.

I hope to learn more about this issue with cloning and factory farming - thanks for publishing that article and posting the contact information to "speak up" to those in power. I also hope to read "Fast Food Nation" soon.

~ Kim







A newly released study commissioned by the Organic Consumers Association (OCA) and overseen by environmental health consumer advocate David Steinman (author of The Safe Shopper's Bible), revealed the presence of the undisclosed carcinogenic contaminant 1,4-Dioxane in leading shampoos, body washes, lotions and other personal care and household cleaning products claiming to be "natural" or "organic". The study results, to be released this weekend at the Natural Products Expo in California, are already sending shockwaves through the "organic" and "natural" body care industry. Laboratory tests showed that products certified under the USDA National Organic Program DID NOT contain this toxin, but most of the best selling personal care products claiming to be "organic" (but not USDA certified) contained the cancer-causing ingredient. All leading self-proclaimed "organic" brands have at least a few individual "certified organic" ingredients, but for most of these top-selling brands, the product, as a whole, is not USDA organic certified, thereby allowing the presence of synthetic toxins. Similar studies have revealed the presence of this toxin in conventional personal care products, but this is the first study indicating the presence in misleadingly labeled "organic" and "natural" products. 


  • Some of the products found to contain 1,4-Dioxane: JASON Pure Natural & Organic, Giovanni Organic Cosmetics, Kiss My Face, Nature’s Gate Organics (see a full list of OCA's study results )

  • Remember that just because a personal care product labels itself with the words "organic" or "certified organic" doesn't mean it meets any specified organic standards.

  • Look for products that are certified under the USDA National Organic Program (or a similar German program) and products that bear the "USDA Organic" seal.

  • Search product labels for ingredients with the following in their names to avoid products containing 1,4-Dioxane: myreth, oleth, laureth, ceteareth, any other eth, PEG, polyethylene, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, or oxynol.

  • In general, avoid products with unpronounceable ingredients to be sure to avoid synthetic toxins and carcinogens.


A new "organic" standard for personal care products has been created exclusively by conventional industry members like Estee Lauder (owner of Aveda), Loreal and Hain (Jason, Avalon), without any input or comment period from organic consumers, organic farmers or personal care companies who have achieved USDA National Organic Program certification for the majority of their products. The OASIS standard allows a product to be labeled outright as “Organic” (rather than “Made with Organic Specified Ingredients”) even if it contains hydrogenated and sulfated cleansing ingredients like Sodium Lauryl Sulfate made from conventional agricultural material grown with synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, and preserved with synthetic petrochemical preservatives like Ethylhexylglycerin and Phenoxyethanol. As always, the OCA recommends consumers look for personal care products certified under the USDA National Organic Program. 

Brought to you by ORGANIC BYTES, from Organic Consumers Assoc.









Shell................................ 205,742,000 barrels

Chevron/Texaco............ 144,332,000 barrels

Exxon /Mobil................... 130,082,000 barrels

Marathon/Speedway.... 117,740,000 barrels

Amoco...............................62,231,000 barrels

$104 per barrel X $66,012,700,000.00 supporting the Middle East


Citgo gas helped poor American Indians in 2008 with $21 million in winter home heating assistance to 220 tribal communities in 13 states.

Here are some large companies that do not import Middle Eastern oil:

Sunoco...................0 barrels

Conoco...................0 barrels

Sinclair....................0 barrels

B P/Phillips.............0 barrels

Hess.........................0 barrels

ARC0........................0 barrels


B P/Phillips has begun to import oil from the Middle East. 


If you go to, you will get a list of the station locations near you.





"The teachings are for all, not just for Indians...The white people never wanted to learn before. They thought we were savages. Now they have a different understanding, and they do want to learn. We are all children of God. The tradition is open to anyone who wants to learn." -Don Jose Matusuwa, Huichol

In the summer of 1994, a white buffalo calf was born. This means that now is the time for all races to come together. The Elders say that at this time a voice from within will speak to everyone. It will say now is the time to forgive, now is the time to come together. Are we willing to do this? Are we willing to quit judging other people? The Elders say, He will be
talking through people of all races and gender. We need to open our hearts and welcome our brothers and sisters.

Great Spirit,

let my ears beopen as I walk
the path You have chosen for me.

By Don Coyhis




Trust Decision: Ignoring History and Common Sense
by Doug George-Kanentiio


The February 22 decision by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to place 13,000 acres of land in central New York in trust for the Oneida Nation is not a cause for celebration but alarm.
If there is one undeniable truth in Iroquois-US relations it is this: the Americans will do what they can to eradicate the Haudenosaunee as a distinct people. Whether  this means eclipsing our humanity by portraying us as sub-human savages, forcibly removing us from our ancestral lands or destroying our culture by imposing alien values on our children the process of obliteration continues.
We have opposed this tactic with whatever means possible even if it required us to pick up arms. We have fought in the courts and taken to the streets, created alternative schools, developed language retention programs, organized our own media. All of this to preserve and protect our identity as onkwehonwe. We have sent our representatives throughout the world carrying messages of defiance and hope.

As along as we held together we have been able to delay what some would say is the inevitable loss of our heritage but the miracle is that we still have the most vital elements of our culture intact. We might be stronger still if we had not had
to struggle with our own kin, those who saw immediate, personal gain as preferable to the seven generations principle which is supposed to be the moral and legal foundation of our lives.
The latest tactic used by the US to divorce us from the earth is to place our ancestral territory into trust. This is a new concept for the Iroquois since we now hold title to our lands as a collective. We never ceded this vital position to the US or Canada. We refused to go along or go away which in turn compelled the  Americans to create colonial entities designed to undermine the Confederacy
and effect the concessions the US needed to carry out its plans.

Our people were warned, clearly and repeatedly beginning with Skaniateriio
(Handsome Lake) that we would be destroyed if we became addicted to alcohol
and gambling; that we would sacrifice all we owned to sustain these two highly addictive things. The late Atotaho Leon Shenandoah was equally emphatic about this, pointing out that our own people would bring about the end of the Haudenosaunee.

Specifically, what is trust?  It means we give up our territory to the US which then allows us to live on these reserved lands until it rules otherwise. What the US gives us is the peculiar thing called Indian rights, a condition of existence defined by the Americans according to the Christian doctrines of discovery.


Federal trust comes at an enormous cost. Trust was in place when the US stole tens of millions of acres of Native land after it passed the Dawes Act of 1887.  The legislation designed to "help" Indians in fact cost us 90,000,000 acres of land, made 90,000 natives homeless, undermined Native governments and shattered thousands of families.

Federal trust? Has anyone at the St. Regis Tribe, the Oneida Nation or the Cayugas bothered to call Eloise Cobell, the courageous Blackfoot woman who challenged the US on behalf of 500,000 Indians? Her suit maintained the federal government has failed to account for as much as $40,000,000,000 in Native funds involving resources from 11,000,000 acres of trust land. See for the complete story.

Federal trust? We did not even have trust and yet lost 10,000 acres of the Allegany territory for the Kinzua Dam, a quarter of Tuscarora's land for the Niagara Falls reservoir and Akwesasn's waterfront during the Seaway. Would not trust make us even more vulnerable to these kinds of thefts?
Does not trust mean whatever commerce takes place on such land is then subject to pay all federal taxes? And to pay those state taxes as ruled applicable by the US courts? In the west Native businesses have no exemption from state assessments on tobacco and fuel, a situation which will certainly apply here on these new trust

The reason trust status was sought in the first place was to protect the casinos.  No arguments for trust mentioned culture, the earth, our animal relatives or the plant life. Those who are its advocates care nothing for the natural-they define existence by monetary standards only. It calls into question our most sacred teachings and why we are here as human beings.

We should all be concerned about ceding lands into trust because it will be the only way lost territory will be returned to us. It is in contrast to the Mohawk land reclamation's of the past generation. Trust is what happens when Iroquois leaders do not know their history or lack a background in our laws and customs.

This lack of spiritual and intellectual balance means that concessions over land and sovereignty are now far too easy to make.


In the Mohawk language, the word "onkwehonwe" means the First Nations and Native people.






Treating Cancer -- With Herbs

from Dr. Mercola



Many of the chemotherapies used to fight cancer in modern medicine were developed from natural substances.

For instance:


Taxanes used to treat prostate and breast cancer came from yew trees.

Vinca alkaloids, which are used to treat malignant lymphomas, are made from periwinkle plants.

The anti-cancer drugs topotecan and irinotecan come from a component of the Chinese Happy Tree.


Scientists are increasingly focusing on plants used in traditional medicine in their search for new compounds. About three-quarters of the pharmaceutical compounds used today came from plants used in traditional medicine.

Professor Dr. Thomas Efferth from Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum in Heidelberg, for example, has begun analyzing 76 Chinese medicinal plants that are believed to treat malignant tumors and other growths. Extracts from 18 of the plants were found to significantly suppress the growth of cancer cells.

“With this success rate of about 24 percent, we are way above the results that could be expected from searching through large chemical substance libraries,” Efferth said.



Eurekalert March 4, 2008

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics January 1, 2008, 7, 152-161


Dr. Mercola's Comments:


Most pharmaceuticals that are derived from plants are typically from one “active” component of the plant that is then isolated and synthetically replicated. In contrast, most traditional medicine remedies use whole plants in their natural state, which is a far cry from the lab-produced cancer treatments used in modern medicine.











The truth about Ellagic Acid 
by Jon Barron

Red Raspberries Kill Cancer



The Buzz
If you pay any attention at all to the alternative-health information-grapevine, you've heard the buzz on ellagic acid. If you believe the rumors flying around the Internet, the cure for cancer is at hand!! This is the greatest
discovery since sliced bread!! Well, like most rumors, there's some truth to it - and a whole lot of nonsense.

The Truth
Two years ago, I wrote in the Barron Report on antioxidants about the value of including berries in your diet because of the benefits of the ellagic acid derived from them. This recommendation was based on work being done at the Hollings Cancer Institute by Dr. Daniel Nixon, who had been studying the benefits of red raspberries for some 6 years at that time. Since then, two things have changed dramatically.

First, the study results are now becoming, for lack of a better word, remarkable. Second, it is now possible to get high quantities of ellagitannins without having to consume a cup of berries every day.

Dr. Nixon's published results show:  Consuming one cup of red raspberries per day (40 mg of ellagitannins) prevents the development of cancer cells. At low concentrations, it slows the growth of cancer cells; at higher concentrations, it tells cancer cells to kill themselves. For example, cells infected with the human papilloma virus (which is linked to cervical cancer), when exposed to ellagic acid experienced apoptosis, or normal cell death.







From Crystal Harvey, MAIC Correspondent

Fluoride Action Network






World Council of Elders Against Fluoride


The World Council of Elders (WCOE) is a nonprofit organization comprised of spiritual elders from native and indigenous peoples in the U.S. and around the globe that is dedicated to preserving the culture, spiritual teachings, and health of indigenous elders. American Indians are disproportionately harmed by kidney disease and diabetes, and WCOE on hearing about warnings from the NRC (2006) panel that those with kidney disease may be particularly vulnerable to drinking fluoridated water sent the following letter to John Davis, CEO of the National Kidney Foundation.


February 8, 2008
John Davis, CEO
National Kidney Foundation
30 East 33rd Street
New York, NY 10016
Dear Mr. Davis,

It has been brought to our attention that the National Research Council has designated diabetics and kidney patients as "susceptible subpopulations" that are particularly vulnerable to harm from fluoride ingestion.  The NRC study can be found online at under the title "Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006)"
As an educational organization dedicated in part to maintaining the health and well-being of indigenous elders, we are alarmed that the National Kidney Foundation has not publicized the findings of the NRC.
Native Americans are at a high risk of developing diabetes, a disease that often leads to kidney problems.  Diabetics are thirsty, and therefore, ingest large amounts of potentially-fluoridated water.  In places where the water supply is not pure, the drink of choice is soda, which frequently contains fluoride.  The accumulation of this toxic substance can lead to further damage to the kidneys and to the bones.  Yet the health problems of the populations that we serve are already immense, complicated by poverty, indifference, and a lack of political power.
As far as we know, neither the Indian Health Service nor the CDC have alerted the Native American tribes in this country to this critical health information. Because the NKF is presumably independent of any political or governmental pressures, you must advocate on behalf of our Native elders and openly oppose water fluoridation.
We respectfully request your assistance on this matter.


Woody Vaspra, President
World Council of Elders






From the Natural Resources Defense Council:


Yellowstone's wild, free-roaming buffalo herd is under siege.


The Bush Administration is turning America's greatest national park into a killing ground for hundreds of mighty bison -- better known as American buffalo.

We must speak out against this cold-blooded cruelty NOW -- because every week, more of these noble creatures are being herded into cattle trucks to be slaughtered.

Wild bison have been brutalized.  This winter alone, more than 1,000 wlly killed by the National Park Service and the Montana Department of Livestock -- or shipped to slaughterhouses.

And come May, newborn calves are just as likely to be killed as their mothers.

We cannot stand by and let this massacre continue:

Right now, it's still winter in Yellowstone, and these unsuspecting buffalo are following historic migratory routes in search of food at lower elevations where there is less snow.

When the buffalo venture near or beyond the park's boundary, they will continue to be rounded up and killed -- unless we start a national outcry. 

What makes this sacrifice so senseless is that it's all to protect 12 to 16 domestic cows and steers that graze near the park
from the theoretical risk of a disease -- brucellosis -- that has never been transmitted from bison to cattle in a natural setting.

Yes, you read those numbers right: 1,000 wild bison slaughtered to protect a little more than a dozen cows outside the park
that have most likely been vaccinated against the disease, or easily could be.

Please speak out and stop the slaughter. Yellowstone's buffalo are a national treasure: America's last, free-roaming herd. The National Park Service should be their guardian, not their executioner.

Our goal this week is to create a virtual "stampede" of 50,000 protest messages that will convince the National Park Service to call a halt to the killing.

Together, we must speak out to spare the lives of Yellowstone's surviving buffalo
so that they can again roam wild and free.


Frances Beinecke
NRDC Action Fund




Plaza in Peru may be America's oldest urban site

By Patrick J. McDonnell, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer



The circular structure at the ruins of Sechin Bajo is about 5,500 years old 



LIMA, PERU — An ancient stone plaza unearthed in Peru dates back more than  five millenniums and is the oldest known urban  settlement in the Americas,  according to experts here.


Archaeologists say the site, uncovered amid a complex of ruins known as Sechin Bajo, is a major discovery that could help reshape their understanding of the continent's pre-Columbian history.


Carbon dating by a German and Peruvian excavation team indicates that the circular plaza is at least 5,500 years old, dating to about 3,500 BC, said Cesar Perez, an archaeologist at Peru's National Institute of Culture who supervised the dig.


That would make it older than the Great Pyramid of  Giza.   Sechin Bajo, 230 miles north of the capital, Lima,  thus eclipses the  ancient Peruvian citadel of Caral, some 5,000 years  old, as the New World's  oldest known settlement.  


"This has tremendous importance, both in Peru and  internationally," Perez  said by cellphone from the area. "We think it's the  oldest urban site found  in the Americas."  


Word of the discovery was first published Sunday in  the Peruvian daily El  Comercio.   "The findings in Sechin Bajo, especially in the  buried circular plaza, have  demonstrated that there is construction from 5,500  years ago," Peter R.  Fuchs, a German archaeologist who worked at the site, told the newspaper.  "Whoever built Sechin Bajo had a good knowledge of  architecture and  construction."  


Much of the hidden plaza was uncovered this year,  and a great deal of  excavation remains to be done, Perez said.  Relatively little is known about  the people who lived there.   The plaza, 33 to 39 feet across, may have been a  site for gatherings,  perhaps a kind of ceremonial center. It was built of  rocks and adobe  bricks.   Successive cultures lived in the area and built over  the site.  


Earlier finds in the Sechin Bajo area, in the Casma Valley of Peru's Ancash  region, had been dated at more than 3,000 years old.  But the circular plaza  pushes the area's settlement date back considerably.   Peru is perhaps best known to outsiders as the cradle of the Inca empire,  which stretched from modern-day Chile to Ecuador.  


But the Incas were relative latecomers in Peru's long history of human settlement, rising to prominence in the 15th century before being conquered by the Spanish in the  early 16th century.   Before the Inca, Peru was home to various civilizations that left a rich legacy of ruins, pottery, tombs and artifacts. Teams of archaeologists are  at work throughout the country, including the bustling capital.  


Scientists say settlements were beginning to grow in Peru about the time of urbanization in such cradles of civilization as Mesopotamia, Egypt and India.









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