Manataka American Indian Council     Volume XIl  Issue 3  MARCH 2008


Manataka - Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow 







Hill & Holler: The Caucus - Native American Gift
Announcement: Manataka Gathering Annoucement
History: Exemplar of Liberty:  Part 3 of a 15-part series

Grandfather Hawk Speaks Speaks:

 Grandfather King Coke Speaks:

A Walk Back In Time
Feature Story:
Elder's Meditations: Leonard George, Chief Councilor
Women's Council: Circle of Friends
Women's Circle: Onondaga Nation Woman Gets UN Post
Food & Nutrition: Cherokee Bean Bread - tu-ya ga-du
Book Reviews: Four Books Ya Gotta Read...
Poetry Circle: Black Hawk
Inspirational Thought:: The Chamber of Justice
Healing Prayer Basket: Crossing Over, Sickness, and Memorials
Manataka  Business: Positive Moves Forward





By Susan Bates

News and Notes From Indian Country


The Caucus - Native American Gift To The Nation

It's election time again. The Iowa caucus was the starting gun for 10 months of political hype and ads, ad nauseum. I was listening to CNN's coverage of the Iowa event when I heard a reporter mention that the word "caucus" might have been an Indian word. The anchorwoman's startled laugh and dubious reply made it clear that she had grave doubts about that.

According to my Merriam Webster's New  Collegiate Dictionary, the word caucus is "probably Algonquian" and means "a closed meeting of a group of persons belonging to the same political party or faction usually to select candidates or to decide on policy.

Contrary to popular white opinion, our form of government is much, much older than anything Europeans had and was not a gift from the Greeks. While Europe was still in the throes of the "Middle Ages," Hiawatha had already founded the League of Iroquois Nations which was the biggest political unit north of the Aztec nation.

Benjamin Franklin thought this form of government much superior to anything the white's had and fought to form the same type of system for the United States.

Today we enjoy many of the benefits which "savage peoples" taught to our Founding Fathers. Some of these are; no royalty, no hereditary rule; the separation of civilian and military rule; the ability to naturalize new citizens; the right to admit new nations into our body; and the use of the caucus to decide what the majority of our people favor before we take the floor to present our case.

Perhaps some day soon, all people will understand just how advanced our society was before we were invaded by those who's main "advantages" were superiority in numbers and horrible diseases.

Until then, I urge everyone to cast their vote this election day. Who knows, the way things are going, this might be the last one.

Sources: Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, 1975 edition. Weatherford, J., Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1988. The History and Culture of Iroquois Diplomacy (F. Jennings, ed.). Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1985


Susan Bates






In 2008, Manataka will continue the new policy of requiring an invitation to attend Gatherings.  Current members are not required to request an invitation, but former members, guests and visitors must send a written request at least ten days before any event.  Manataka will no longer advertise or promote Gatherings, except to members and supporters.


This policy allowed our members and guests in 2007 to enjoy a time of peace, prayer and ceremony without disruptions by tourists and local gawkers.  Manataka Gatherings are a time for friends to  feast and socialize, but in the past they were mistaken as a form of entertainment.


We hope this policy meets with the acceptance of members and supporters and the understanding of all others. 


Renew your membership today!





The March issue features part 3 of a 15-part series on the founding of the United States of America and the previously misunderstood and often discounted, yet tremendous contributions of American Indians in the process.    


Exemplar of Liberty:

Native America and the Evolution of Democracy

By Dr. Donald A. Grinde, Jr. and Dr. Bruce E. Johansen

Original Artwork by John Kahionhes Fadden
Foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr.







    Foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr.

    Chapter 1    VOX AMERICANA





A Walk Back In Time


I wanted to share this with our readers; One summer afternoon as I was returning home after a Gathering at Manataka in the year 2000 (The Millennium).  I happen to see a sign which read, 'The Trail Of Tears Rest Area near Cape Giradeau, Illinois.


I found a place to park and I noticed an older gentleman along side the road. He told me that back in the year 1836 or 1838 the Trail Of Tears came right through the area. I remembered stories being told by my grandfather about how his grandmother was among the people that traveled through southern Illinois and how they escaped from the watchful eyes of the army soldiers who were assigned to guard them and how the family followed the Elders fleeing into the wooded area.


My Great Great Grandmother would have been only 16 years old at that time. I began to walk along the path ways and I could hear the wind blowing through the tops of the tall pine trees. As I continued to walk, it was almost as though the wind was talking to me. I looked back and saw that I must have walked over one mile from where I parked my car.


I turned around and started back and as I walked, I could hear the sounds of someone crying. It was the wind in the tops of the trees. I noticed in several areas where there were rose bushes growing and remember reading a story by one of the soldiers assigned to travel with the people. The story was 'Cherokee Rose! I stood still for a while looking at the tops of the pine trees and listening to the wind. I prayed as I walked to my car and tears were falling from my eyes. Each year since then, I return and burn sage and pray for the spirits of the people who died along this trail.


Perhaps you too had ancestors who were on this trail, go to this area and look at the tops of the trees and listen perhaps you will have a wonderful experience.


Be safe and be blessed!



Hawk With Seven Eyes


Daniel Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman is a founding member of the Taylorville Black Horse Powwow, Inc,' a nonprofit 501(c)(3) charitable and educational organization. He has given presentations at schools in Central Illinois area on the history, culture and religious beliefs of the Native American people for over 27 years. Hawk and members of his group present dance demonstrations for children who along with their teachers are invited to dance.  Hawk believes children are the future.  



Grandfather Speaks


Rigid Thinking,

Rigid Lifestyles and

Goin' With the Flow...

By Robert Gray Hawk, March 2008



People have often said to me they need more "rigidity" in their lives.  That is, they need more "structure", or to become better "organized". 


My heart and I do not agree.   


Often, I look to Mother Nature as a "truth meter" when deciding human issues of behavior.  In this case, Mother Nature says, "observe water."


The character of water teaches us excellent ways we can become more easy-going or fluid in our nature.   


Water easily adapts itself to changing conditions.  Chemically, water is two parts

hydrogen and one part oxygen. Our bodies are approximately 98% liquids. Water is found in three physical states; first in its liquid state, add cold and it becomes a solid; add heat and it becomes a misty gas.  Water, will find a way to leave the surface and go deep into a great aquifer only to later push up through a spring to the surface, where it will vaporize into a cloud and start the whole trip again.  Water teaches us to adapt when necessary and to endure when required.


Water always searches for escape when contained -- like holding water in your hands.  The tighter you hold water, the quicker it will escape.  Water loves freedom.  


Warm water feels warm and comfortable to the touch.  Water is soft and gentle, yet it is one of the strongest elements on earth. The soft, gentle rain drops in your hand has untold strength.  Water is extremely powerful. It flows gently down a stream until it gathers speed over the rocks and flows dangerously fast as it smashes any obstacle in its path.  Water breaks seemingly impervious boulders into sand and dust.  Flood waters move the earth, large buildings and any obstruction to its freedom. 


Water has an abundance of patience.  Most of us could use more patience. 


Water is eternally persistent.  It never gives up in its pursuits.  The Grand Canyon was slowly cut over thousands of years to create one of the most spectacular eco-systems on the earth.  Let us be unrelenting to create a better world for all those on our path.


Water is not self-serving, but it serves all other things of the earth.  It gives the fish a place to live and it gives all plants and other living things of the earth its power and energy.   It allows the two and four legged ones, winged ones and creepy crawlers to live.   May we learn from water to become more giving in our nature.


Water is a force that flows across the face of the earth at will.  Water easily changes course to get to where it wishes to be.  This is a good lesson in being more flexible and determined in our pursuits.


We must learn to flow with life.  Learn to be more gentle.  Know when combined with other forces within you and around you that you can become strong and powerful.  Like water, have patience with life as you flow by it.


~Robert Gray Hawk, March 2008



Robert Gray Hawk King Coke, 77, Cherokee, is the newest member of the Manataka Elder Council. Coke graduated from the New Mexico Military Institute in 1952 with a biology degree. He served in the U.S. Army with a tour in Europe.


After returning home, Robert Coke, entered pre-seminary school Austin College with a major in Philosophy.  He continued his education by earning a degree in Bachelor of Science in Engineering and a Bachelor of Business Administration at Southern Methodist University where he later served on the faculty as an instructor. In 1996, Elder Coke was elected Chairman, of the American Indian Heritage Association and served as an ambassador for the American Indian Center of Dallas. Gray Hawk is now a semi-retired consultant.




No offense intended for any individuals or tribes.



Crossing the River...


Three men were hiking through a forest when they came upon a large raging, Violent river. Needing to get to the other side, the first man prayed:  "God, please give me the strength to cross the river."

Poof! .. God gave him big arms and strong legs and he was able to swim across in about 2 hours, having almost drowned twice.

After witnessing that, the second man prayed: "God, please give me strength and the tools to cross the river"

Poof! .. God gave him a rowboat and strong arms and strong legs and he was able to row across in about an hour after almost capsizing once.

Seeing what happened to the first two men, the third man prayed: "God, please give me the strength, the tools and the intelligence to cross the river"

Poof! ... He was turned into a woman. She checked the map, hiked one hundred yards up stream and walked across the bridge.





"Spiritual Values are an Attitude." ~-Leonard George, Chief Councilor

Attitude is a direction which we follow. If you have a positive attitude, it means you will lean towards a positive direction. If you have a negative attitude, it means you will lean away from  the Spirit. Therefore, if we lean towards spiritual values, then our actions will become significant and important. If we lean away from spiritual values, our actions will become insignificant or unimportant. For example, if we value love, we will lean towards it; we will prefer to express and embrace it.

Great Spirit,
teach me the significance of
spiritual values.

By Don Coyhis







The Women's Council has been lazy this past quarter of winter.


The Manataka Women's Council 'Circle of Friends'; meets the first Saturday of each month at 11:30 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. Coffee is provided, food and other soft beverages are brought by individuals to share. Please remember to bring your drums or other musical instruments to meetings.


Regular Membership Meetings - Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
March 1 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
April 5 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR


(When meetings are held at Gulpha Gorge please bring a lawn chair, something to drink, and a snack to share.)  Meeting are held at various locations during bad weather - email us to find out where.


The Manataka Drum Society is growing with more singers joining.  Weekly practice sessions is where new songs, food and laughter are enjoyed by everyone.  Contact: Amanda Morningstar:

Donations of nonperishable food items, toiletries, and bio-friendly cleaning suppies will be accepted and are greatly appreciated. Requests for assistance are year-round.  Please send or bring.


Please direct any questions our comments to Becky 'Flaming Owl Peacekeeper' Moore at


Join Us!






Tonya Gonnella Frichner, Esq.
(Snipe Clan, Onondaga Nation,
Haudenosaunee, Iroquois Confederacy)


Onondaga Woman Gets UN Post

Tonya is President and founder of the American Indian Law Alliance in New York, a lawyer and activist, whose academic and professional life has been devoted to the pursuit of human rights for Indigenous peoples. She earned a Bachelor of Science Degree, magna cum laude, from St. John’s University in NYC, and her Juris Doctor from the City of New York Law School at Queens College, where she is a member of the Board of Visitors. Tonya also sits on the Board of Directors and serves as legal counsel to the Iroquois Nationals lacrosse team, international competitors at the World Cup level representing the Haudenosaunee Confederacy.

In 1987, shortly after graduation from law school, she served as a delegate for and was of legal counsel to the Haudenosaunee at the UN Sub-Commission on the Human Rights/Working Group on Indigenous Populations in Geneva, Switzerland. Since that time, Tonya has actively participated in international forums for Indigenous peoples. She has worked closely with elders from the Haudenosaunee Confederacy (especially the Onondaga nation) and the Lakota Nation (through the Teton Sioux Nation Treaty Council). Her most recent efforts were focused on the process of the establishment of the Permanent Forum On Indigenous Issues, and the negotiation processes concerning the draft, “ UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples” and the proposed OAS “Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.”







How To Make Cherokee Bean Bread
tu-ya ga-du

Submitted by Joann Cordell, Eastern Cherokee


You take wood ashes and pot them in a pot with water. Bring it to heat; add shinny corn, and boil. Every once in awhile you remove a corn and check it to see if the outer part will slip off.


When it's ready, you take it to flowing water, either your spring or now a days to the kitchen tap and rinse off the husk and rinse until water runs clear.


Now you gonna pound that corn, while all this is going on you are cooking some beans. People use pinto beans now instead of the old wild beans that grow here in the East but with no salt. Salt makes it crumble.


So, when you got the corn all pounded and the beans cooked, you either have your hickory leaves or your corn blades ready to use. If you are using corn blades you have dried from harvest, you pour boiling water over them to make them back flexible.


You mix the corn and beans together with a little bean juice and pat them out into a patty sort of a thing and wrap them up in the leaves or the corn blades. Tie the bundle up and drop them into boiling water for about one hour. You serve with a little bear grease over the top.


Cherokees of California




Click on the book of your choice


The Saga of Noah Collins by Jeremy Morningstar - Children

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus - History - Great! Encyclopedia of  Native American Healing by William S. Lyon - Medicine

Voice of the Hawk Elder by Edna Gordon edited by Harvey Arden







Osceola Bird Man Waters



I am Black Hawk, you say who.

"Black Hawk," I reply,


You the white man can not hide your shame,

Time that’s ever lasting will not erase your guilt,

Or the actions of criminals,

History books may gather dust,

The written word may tell of conquests,


Of victory’s won,

You may hide the truth amongst the words,

Honesty and truth evaded,

Pride and honesty becomes a fallacy,


The spoken word of our fore bearers,

Travels with the wind down through time,

Exposes and blows the dust off history books,

Cobb webs elasticized become electrified,


Shimmer in the draft and catch the lies,

That are evicted from books of old,

And exposed lies told,

Murder committed, at Bad Axe River,


In cold blood by cowards born,

Mother’s baby’s easily dispatched,

The sand on the beach will always be red,


Never white,

The water will always flow, with the spirits of our dead,

The cries will drift in the four directions of the wind,

The white man thinks time will diminish their dastardly deeds,

That the sand ever shifting will cover this killing place,

And all will be forgotten and extinguish our seeds,

The eagle will come home too roost,


The Great Spirit will raise his fist,

The hammer of judgment will come crashing down,

America will be the home of the Indian once more,

Harmony will return to our Mother Earth again,

Forests will stand tall once more,

Rivers will flow free and pure with out stain,


The buffalo will be abundant once more,

The people who are alien to our Mother Earth will be cast out,

I Black Hawk will return with my people,

All will emerge out of the darkness,

And into the light,

All the lost tribes will be again,


The rainbow will become a full circle,

The Master of Breath will walk amongst us,

The sun will shine on the children of the sun,

The rain will still fall,

And the seasons four will still decorate the scene,

The moon will travel across the night time sky all aglow,


Fractured crystals will capitulate the sun light,

They will highlight an empty space,

Beauty will envelope all,

Our Blue Star will be our home again.

My vision my dream.








"Conscience is the root of all true courage; if a man would be brave let him obey his conscience.  Without courage conscience is a wild beast.  Our conscience is our chamber of justice."

~Submitted by Romaine Garcia




Prayer and ceremony work.  Creator heals and brings peace.




Crossing Over...

Kent 'Wolf Spirit' Leffelman, 43 (St. Louis, MO) passed on March 10 at his home.  Kent Wolf Spirit was a long time friend and member of Manataka. He was a kind and gentle soul who will be missed. ~Mike Koeber


John D. Two Eagles Walden (Mountain Pine, AR) passed on December 11 at the Veterans Hospital. He was a member of Manataka since 1999.  John was a diabetic with serious heart problems.


Floyd Red Crow Westerman (1936 - 2007) Floyd Red Crow Westerman, Sisseton-Wapheton Dakota musician, actor, and activist, passed away at 5:00 a.m. PST, at Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles after an extended illness. He was 71.   Westerman, who began his career as a country singer, appeared in over 50 films and televison productions, including Dances with Wolves, Hidalgo, The Doors, and Poltergeist, and Northern Exposure. He appeared in 12 episodes of the 1990s TV series, Walker, Texas Ranger, as Uncle Ray Firewalker.

As a young man, he was educated at the Wapheton and Flandreau Boarding Schools, where he became a close companion and life-long friend of Dennis Banks. He left his home on the Lake Traverse reservation in South Dakota, with a suitcase and an old guitar in hand. He rambled across the country playing country music and original tunes in bars and clubs, living for some time in Denver. In 1969, his first album Custer Died for Your Sins became the background theme of the emerging Red Power Movement.

As a member of American Indian Movement, and a spokesman for the International Indian Treaty Council, Westerman traveled the world extensively working for the betterment of native people. His vision of improved social conditions for indigenous people around the globe is reflected in the music of his second album, The Land is Your Mother, 1982. In 2006, he won a NAMMY Award for his third album, A Tribute to Johnny Cash. During his career, he played and collaborated with a number of notable musicians including Willie Nelson, Kris Kristopherson, Buffy St. Marie, Jackson Browne, Harry Belafonte, and Sting.

Westerman also worked throughout his life to empower Indian youth. "They are our future," he said in a November interview. "Today we are fighting a great battle against the popular culture that surrounds them. It's a battle for their hearts and minds. We need to work to inspire them to embrace their own history and culture. Without them, we Indians have no future." 


Native Times 12/13/2007



Major Fred Blue Eagle Wilson, (Canadian Mohawk) Passed away on Oct. 1, 2007. He was one of the Tuskegee Airmen from World War II.  Blue Eagle was a true hero.   Steve Roragen, Commando, Roanoke, VA  11-01-07


Rev. David Salmon (Fairbanks, AK) -- The first traditional chief for the Athabascan people of
the Interior died Thursday at his home in Chalkyitsik. Salmon was 95.   10-16-07


Vernon Bellecourt (WaBun-Inini) Anishinabe/Ojibwe Nation (Minnesota) Hailed as one of Indian's greatest champions, Bellecourt, 75, passed today.  Throughout his life he fought to preserve the integrity of indigenous people.  Vernon was principal spokesman for the American Indian Movement and a leader in actions ranging from the 1972 occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington to the 1992 Redskin Superbowl demonstrations. He was Co-founder and first Executive Director of the Denver AIM Chapter. His involvement at Wounded Knee in 1973 led to a Federal indictment. He was a special representative of the International Indian Treaty Council and helped organize the first Treaty Conference in 1974. He was jailed for throwing his blood on the Guatemalan Embassy to protest the killing of 100,000 Indians. He was elected to a 4-year term in his White Earth tribal government and developed a model program for the spiritual education of Indian prisoners. Vernon was President of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports & Media and recipient of the City of Phoenix, Martin Luther King Human Rights Award 1993. He is called one of the finest orators of his time.  Chief Xielolixii  10-13-07 



Prayer Needed - Sickness, Injury, Troubles...


Richard Reay (Phoenix, AZ)  Serious blood clots.  Please pray for this special man.  Nina Giordano 01-23-08


Prayers Answered for Tanner, age 3 (Memphis, TN) Tanner successfully underwent double eye surgery at Children's Hospital for a serious condition know as amblyopia. He is now home a recovering nicely.  Please give your thanks to God for healing Tanner.


Prayers Answered for Ms. Evangeline Van Lynch (Memphis, TN) Tennessee Indian Commissioner admitted to the hospital suffering from a heart attack and scheduled to undergo surgery.


Clover TwoBears Johnson. Suffered a mini-stroke in April of 2007 and diagnosed with Diabetes and MS. as well.  Duane (Lame Wolf) Rowland  11-01-07





In Memory of Bill Prezwoznik

Bill Prezwoznik was one of the four founders of Manataka.  His wisdom and love guided Manataka through its infancy. 


In Memory of Corbin Harney

Corbin Harney Spiritual Leader of the Western Shoshone Nation who dedicated his life to fighting the nuclear testing and dumping.  He loved and cared for his family, friends and all creation.


In Memory of Granny Messenger

She had over 1,000 grandchildren but never a child. Her memory will live with us forever.  Anonymous Contributor  


In Memory of Lance Selvidge

Webster’s definition of a Martyr:  1:  A person who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a belief.  2: A person who sacrifices something of great value, especially life itself for the sake of principle.  Lance, we are all better because you walked this world, we will all become better because you look back with eyes from the angels world. Thank You.  The Selvidge Family. Little River Rock.


In Memory of Ruby Gilliham

We will always remember this gracious and beautiful woman in our hearts.  She will remain a part of Manataka forever - Standing Bear.  Greg Gilliham, Little Rock




Did you submit a prayer request above?  If so, please send us an update. 

We are reluctant to remove anyone without knowing if more prayers are needed. 





Elders met on Sunday, February 17 and did not conduct business.  David Quiet Wind Furr and Patty Blue Star Budette were absent due to illness.


Minutes and the Treasurer's reports were read.   Lee Standing Bear Moore reiterated a need for a professional bookkeeper.


The Manataka Trademark certificate was presented and explanation of its future requirements.  


Manataka T-shirts were given out to all elders present.  Business cards were given to Blue Star and Gray Hawk. 


Discussion about the upcoming series of “Survival” seminars. Venues and dates were set.  


The March 2008 Member Spirit Award will be given to Becky Flaming Owl Moore.


Committee Reports were accepted and reviewed.  




NOTICE 1:    FOOD BASKETS NEEDED NOW!  people are hungry often throughout the year.  Please bring or send non-perishable food items. Gift cards for food from Walmart, Safeway and other stores are great. 


NOTICE 2:    REGULAR MEMBERSHIP MEETINGS - 1:00 p.m., 3rd Sunday each month at Gulpha Gorge.  In case of inclement weather (rain, sleet, snow, below 40 degrees) we meet Ryan's Restaurant located at 4538 Central Avenue across from Hot Springs Mall.


Gatherings are normally held on the 3rd weekend of June (closest to the Summer Solstice) and the 3rd weekend of October (closest to the Winter Solstice).  The date of the Spring Encampment varies from year to year. 


NOTICE 3:    WOMEN’S COUNCIL MEETINGS - 11:30 a.m., 1st Saturday each month.  Contact: Becky Moore


Now is a good time to support the many programs, services and events of MAIC. We can always use a donation. Pay by check or credit card online. It's easy, secure and fast!   Click Here  Or send to: MAIC, PO Box 476, Hot Springs, AR 71902


1.  15 - 30 gallon plastic storage boxes with lids.


2.  LAND -  Donate land to be used as financing leverage for to build a cultural center. Any size/location is acceptable. Tax benefits may apply.


3.  MEMORIAL GIFTS - When a friend or relative passes, honor their memory and send a tax deductible  contribution to MAIC and we will send the family a beautiful letter and memorial certificate in your name.




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Manataka American Indian Council
PO Box 476
Hot Springs, AR 71902-0476


Lee Standing Bear Moore

MAIC Correspondents:

Jennifer Attaway, Alabama

Sheri Burnett, Georgia

Robert King Coke - Grey Hawk, Texas

Crystal Harvey, Arkansas

Carol Henderson

Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman, Illinois

Grandmother Selma, Florida

Bennie LeBeau, Wyoming

Julie Maltagliati, Florida

Magdala, Arkansas

Bobby Joe Runninbear, Tennessee 

Liora Leah Zack, California

Paula Unega Ulogidv Phillips, Arkansas

Waynonaha Two Worlds


Susan Bates, Missouri

David Cornsilk, Oklahoma

Don Coyhis

Andrea Crambit, California

Bonnie Two Owl Feathers Delcourt, New Hampshire 

Valerie Eagle Heart

Maxine Elisi Swan Dancer Fulgham

Romaine Garcia, Colorado

John James, Arkansas

Mark and Carla Maslin, New Mexico

Dr. Joseph Mercola

Elaine Nowell, Mississippi / Arkansas

Corina Roberts, California

Scott Treaty

RedWing and Gray Beard Vinson, Tennessee

Osceola Birdman Waters, Australia

Linda VanBibber, Missouri



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The word "Manataka" is a registered trademark exclusively owned by the Manataka American Indian Council.  Use of this trademark without the expressed written permission of MAIC is prohibited and violators will be prosecuted. 15 U.S.C. Section 1051(a), (b)