Manataka American Indian Council






Manataka - Place of Peace


or Persecution


Dissertation By Nancy Rector,

University of Arkansas at Little Rock, December 1, 2005




        Hot Springs National Park in the state of Arkansas is a special place for many reasons. It is the smallest and oldest national park in the United States and the only one to boast a resort town right in its middle by the same name.   It is the very first federal reservation ever created (Williams). Its claim to fame are 47 therapeutic hot springs which are unique in and of themselves in that scientists and geologist are unsure what makes these particular spring waters hot (National Park Service). The “Valley of the Vapors” is also steeped in Native American history and was considered a sacred gathering place to them for thousands of years. There are those, Native Americans and white man alike, who still honor the area for its spiritual and sacred nature. However, there is currently a small thread of controversy running through the valley concerning those who are trying to keep alive the Native American history of the area and several others, including the National Park Service, who have begun a campaign to erase its sacred nature and past. This issue has many facets and it is necessary to have a background of some of the political and natural history of hot springs in order to understand what might possibly be the cause of this dispute.

White Man’s Secular History of Hot Springs National Park


            There is little doubt of the Native American aspect concerning the history of Hot Springs. In the current relocation guide for Hot Springs put out by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism it says “The springs were known as a place of peace to the Caddo Indian inhabitants of the area long before white men set foot in the valley” (Ark. Dept. of Parks 1).


            Dr. Frank Schambach, the resident archeologist of the Arkansas Archeological Survey's research station at Southern Arkansas University co-authored a book which states the following: “During the Paleo Indian era and by the Archaic era, Indians were quarrying novaculite [whetstone] extensively. The hills around Hot Springs, Arkansas, contain hundreds of quarry pits dug by the Indians (13).


On a Hot Springs National Park web site it states:  Water is what attracts people to Hot Springs. In fact they have been coming here since the first person stumbled upon these springs perhaps 10,000 years ago. Stone artifacts found in the park give evidence that Indians knew and used the hot springs. For them the area was a neutral ground where different tribes came to hunt, trade and bathe in peace. (Uhler) Author, lecturer and Hot Springs Historian Marcus Phillips writes:


The great southwest trail on the Native American Continent ran through Arkansas and then above the trail was Hot Springs and there was a hub of trails coming into Hot Springs used by the Indians to come in to bathe and drink the hot water and mine crystals and novaculite….” (Hot Springs)


The history of Hot Springs National Park’s Native American culture is evident by the use of Native American names throughout the park such as Ouachita Mountains, Dead Chief Trail, Indian Mountain, and Quapaw Bath House etc... As Marcus Phillips said, Hot Springs has always been in the tradition of the Indians (Hot Springs).


Then in 1541 the first white man entered the area. Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto had many interactions with the Indians (Mitchem).     


Traveling back in time to the year 1541, when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto arrived in Hot Springs and drank the thermal waters, he discovered what the Native American Indians had experienced as long as 10,000 years ago. This Valley of the Vapors, nestled in the Ouachita Mountains, was a place of peace where various tribes would put aside their differences [to perform spiritual ceremonies] and gather to enjoy the mysterious springs. Since then, visitors have come for healing, rejuvenation, and recreation. (City of Hot Springs)


De Soto used captured Indians as slaves to carry food and act as guides, often keeping them in chains. They visited many villages and made great discoveries, including the fabled Hot Springs that Indians knew had the power to cure any diseases. (Old State House Museum)


Though there has of late been speculation as to whether De Soto actually came into Hot Springs proper, the common consensus by many authorities is that he did. This is acknowledged throughout the city of Hot Springs and in much of its literature. There is De Soto Park, De Soto Lake, De Soto Blvd, DeSoto Center, De Soto Cove, the De Soto Club, De Soto Park Dam, De Soto Camping Council etc.  In the Fordyce Bathhouse there is a large statue of De Soto receiving a gift from a Caddo Indian (Lund). (See photo at left taken 11/28/05)


There is also a book entitled “The Discovery of Hot Springs, Ark by De Soto”, (Discovery) and his visit is stated plainly on the official government web site for Hot Springs Arkansas (Welcome). It is again spoken of in a new documentary by cinematographer Dale Carpenter which appeared at the Hot Springs  Documentary Film Festival entitled “City of Visitors”. Dale states… “Almost from the time the springs were 'discovered' by Hernando De Soto in 1541, the area has been a tourist attraction, drawing people from all walks of life, all of whom have had an influence on the very unique character of the town. My goal for this project was to capture that character" (Fulbright). 


            Then in 1804 Dr. George Hunter and William Dunbar were the first government officials to visit the hot springs. Their little remembered expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson to survey the newly acquired territory and make scientific observations. This was shortly after the famous Louis and Clark expedition also commissioned by President Jefferson in 1803. Dunbar and Hunter reported on many things including the Indians in the area.    


            While Lewis and Clark were being fitted out to explore the northern and western reaches of the Louisiana Purchase, Thomas Jefferson conceived of carrying a parallel expedition to the south, aiming not only to substantiate the American claim to the territory and better define the boundaries, but to survey the plants, animals, and minerals, the soil and climate, and to assess the situation with respect to Indians and Indian trade.  (American Phil. Society)


Then in 1829 General Andrew Jackson, a forceful proponent of Indian removal, was made president.  He was responsible for the Indian Removal Act which later led to the infamous Trail of Tears, the path of which led through several states including the heart of Arkansas (Jackson).  (See Trail of Tears Map graphic above)              


            The U.S. government sent in 7,000 troops, who forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes. Then began the march known as the Trail of Tears, in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands. (Indian Removal)


            The Indian Removal Act was initially challenged successfully by the Cherokee Nation in 1832 in the US Supreme Court as Worcester v. Georgia. Despite the Supreme Court ruling that sided with the Cherokee Nation as having the right to self-government, Jackson took no action to uphold the Court verdict and openly defied it.


1838 - Trail of Tears


            Despite the Supreme Court's rulings in 1831 and 1832 that the Cherokee had a right to stay on their lands, President Jackson sent federal troops to forcibly remove almost 16,000 Cherokee who had refused to move westward under the unrecognized Treaty of New Echota (1835). In May, American soldiers herded most into camps where they remained imprisoned throughout the summer and where at least 1,500 perished. The remainder began an 800-mile forced march to Oklahoma that fall. In all some, 4,000 Cherokee died during the removal process. (A Chronology)


            Jackson’s sentiment in general about treaties was expressed in a letter from Andrew Jackson to President Monroe: “I have long viewed treaties with the Indians an absurdity, not to be reconciled to the principles of our government”. (228)


            In 1832 President Jackson, in an unusual and unprecedented act, petitioned congress to have Hot Springs made into a federal reservation (not to be confused with Indian Reservations) and succeeded. The reasoning given then and to this day for doing so was to protect the areas natural resources (Department of Interior).  [According to the Manataka American Indian Council,  there is documented evidence contrary to the NPS contention that the purpose was to “protect” the springs – the US has over 10,000 hot springs and none of them received special recognition at the time.  The “purpose” was to confiscate sacred grounds to deny indigenous populations access to a major gathering place for strategic military purposes and to demoralize them by denial of their most sacred grounds.]

Indian Spiritual History of Hot Springs


            There is another side of the history of Hot Springs Arkansas and that is the Native American one. It involves the oral traditions and accounts that have been passed down through the years and concerns the sacredness of the land. Though not found in many of “white mans” books there are several references to it:


            The valley was a sacred spot forever after. It was called Man-a-ta-ka, which signifies a Place of Peace. It was neutral ground and here all hostilities were suspended: all met in friendship and smoked the pipe of peace.” (Discovery)


            “Manataka, the valley of peace,” was a logical place for prehistoric Indians to gather.  (Phillips and Long 8)


            M.S. Bedinger who was a hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey led a group of scientist in an intensive study of the origin, history and geology of Hot Springs National Park.  In his book “Valley of the Vapors: Hot Springs National Park” He says “The “Valley of the Vapors” was a revered and sacred place to the Indians. They believed this was the home of the Great Spirit.” (Bedinger)


The following is from an article in the Saturday Evening Post in January 1992:           


            “…But it was the Indians who first recognized the therapeutic value of the hot mineral waters that cascade down the mountain from more than 40 springs.   They called the valley Man-a-ta-ka--the "Place of Peace"--and the vapors the       "Breath of Healing... (Miller)


John W. Lund, a research associate at the Oregon Institute of Technology, wrote in a publication for the Institute:         

            “…The National Park Service estimates that the Arkansas hot springs have been used by humans for at least 10,000 years. The “Valley of the Vapors” was an honored and sacred place to the Indians. They believed this was the home of the Great Spirit who brought forth the healing warmth of Mother Earth." (Lund)

Though the mention of this sacredness in textbooks is sparse, as is typical with Native American culture it has been passed down through their oral histories and stories.


            “…For thousands of years, this magnificent site was the gathering place of many nations. Tribal leaders and spiritual elders made pilgrimages to the Great Ma-na-ta-ka Mountain to sit in great councils with many tribes. Some came every seven years, others came every eleven years, and others made the journey more frequently depending on local custom. (Moore)


            “…Manataka is the "Jerusalem" of the First Nations people, the people that called    the North and South Americas "home" before the arrival of Europeans – our ancestors have made pilgrimages to this sacred site for eons. Manataka is a spiritual valley that is more than sacred to First Nations People...” Boe Glasschild, Enrolled Elder of the Choctaw Nation of OK, Shamanic Healer (Glasschild)


            “…I am an enrolled member of the Eastern Shoshone Nation from Fort Washakie, Wyoming.  My name is Bennie E. LeBeau Sr., I’m a member of the Spiritual Elders of Mother Earth, an organization of Federally recognized Indigenous Nations of the United States. I am a Sundance Leader, Purification Sweat Lodge Leader, Healer and Advisor within my Eastern Shoshone Nation.  I have worked to help protect many sacred sites across the America’s, working with the Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks in Wyoming on sacred site issues. Many Indigenous Nations represent Manataka (Hot Springs) as a Sacred Site seeing that as their ancestors have for thousands of years…” (LeBeau)


            “…It is with honor and respect that we say Manataka (Hot Springs) is a sacred American Indian site.  I am Donulus Otto enrolled member of Ojibway Nation, Saginaw Chippewa Tribe, and Elder of the Native American Church..." (Otto)

            "...I would like to request some serious consideration from the Department of the Interior recognize and respect Manataka as a sacred Native American site...  I am grateful to the Manataka American Indian Council for all it has done and will do to help protect this sacred site and uphold ancient traditions.  Because their Nation is not yet accepted as a recognized Tribal entity to represent this sacred site, it is up to all of us to let you and the world know of its great importance to all human-kind..." (Arvol Looking Horse, Keeper of the 19th generation Sacred White Buffalo Bundle)

Manataka - Modern Day Controversy


            The Indian culture in the area has been embraced in Hot Springs for many years acknowledged not only by the names which many of the landmarks have been given but by also in other ways including summer programs at Gulpha Gorge put on by the park service itself, celebrating the culture:


Hot Springs National Park is presenting a number of historical, multi-media programs outdoors Wednesday through Saturday at Gulpha Gorge Campground Amphitheatre. Topics range from bathhouses of yesterday to Indian lore and artifacts. (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette)


            In the past the sacredness of this area to Indians has not been a disputed matter or subject of concern. However this has recently changed. It should be noted that the Cherokee were moved from Arkansas in 1828 and there are currently no federally recognized tribes in Arkansas, nor even an Indian commission (Oregon State). And it appears that the powers that be are trying to make sure that no tribes are forthcoming. In October of 2005:


     “An Arkansas legislative committee on Thursday rejected a proposed study of  tribes in the state. The proposal could have led to state recognition of tribes.  Currently, Arkansas doesn't recognize any Indian entities.” (Indianz News)

    Then in 1999 an organization was formed called the Manataka American Indian Council. It was created by Hot Springs residents of Native American ancestry who felt it their calling to keep the legacy of Manataka alive. They began holding semi-annual gatherings at Gulpha Gorge to honor the sacredness of the area. At the gatherings there were song, dance, classes on Native American culture, sweat lodges, music, and other ceremonies. Hundreds would come from miles around to attend the events.
(Hot Springs Sentinel Record)

         Editors Note:  [In the early 1880's, a small group formed the Manatakau Indian Association in Hot Springs that covertly and sometimes overtly fostered the continuation of sacred ceremonies at the Hot Springs (Manataka) Mountain.  In 1901, members of the Manatakau Indian Association petitioned for a charter from the Improved Order of Red Men, a national patriotic fraternity founded in 1887 and its Great Council of Arkansas and became part of thirty IORM tribes or lodges scattered throughout the state.  The local group changed its name to Manataka Tribe No. 6 of Hot Springs and became part of the larger national organization.  Many of the groups' meetings and events continued to be held at Fourche ã Calsat - Gulpha Gorge Park, then owned by the City of Hot Springs.  The focus and activities of the local Manataka Indian Association changed after they were adopted by the IORM.  The new Manataka Tribe No. 6 lost its original spiritual aspects and became a civic organization.  About the time the Manataka Tribe No. 6 of Hot Springs ceased to exist in the 1930's, a new ‘Keeper of Manataka’ emerged who single handedly created a bridge between the previously inhospitable local community against American Indians and Indian spiritual leaders who came for prayer ceremonies.] (History of MAIC: and Story of Chief Benito Gray Horse  


        In order for the gatherings to take place it was required to apply for permits which they were able to do under National Park superintendent Robert Giddings. However when Giddings retired in 2003 a new superintendent was put in place, Josie Fernandez, and with her came a new agenda. From that point on the Manataka Native American Indian Council has been denied permits to gather, pray and perform ceremonies. Also at that time there began a concerted effort by the park to disprove the sacred nature of this area and even Manataka itself.  The reason given for denial of the permit was that at a past gathering the group had “defiled” park property. Spurious proof was given in the form of a photograph showing where small stones had been moved to create two small 2 foot circles.1  They were forced to find another place to meet and did so at Bald Mountain, a 10 acre plot of land which is rented out by Hot Springs resident Rick Lewis to various groups. Mr. Lewis has stated that the Manataka group is one of the cleanest most respectful groups he has had on his property. They leave it better than when they find it.(See photo pg 9 taken 10/15/05 at Manataka Gathering at Bald Mountain)

             This negative change in attitude by the national park was pointed out in a public opinion letter in the local newspaper the Sentinel Record:

"Rangers Rude to Indians:


Dear editor: I have a very serious problem. I was attending a summer gathering of the Manataka Indian Council at Gulpha Gorge the weekend of June 25-26. It was very disturbing the way the park rangers treated these people and their guest. It is appalling the way they harass the American Indians…"  Judy Filmore Hot Springs Village (Filmore)

            Certain Hot Springs National Park Rangers now openly dismiss the concept of Manataka as a myth. One particular ranger, Mark Blaeuer has written an unpublished paper entitled “Didn't All the Indians Come Here?"- Separating Fact from Fiction at Hot Springs National Park” (Blaeuer).  One of the more overt attempts to discount this valleys history is located in the Hot Springs Mountain Tower, a highly visited tourist attraction and landmark located in the heart of Hot Springs. The Tower’s operation is owned by the Hot Springs Convention and Visitors Bureau under a lease agreement with the National Park Service. In December of 2003 immediately following the choice of Fernandez as the new Superintendent for the park, the owners of the tower were told that in order to maintain operation they must make major improvements to the tower including the creation of a museum on the 2nd floor which details Hot Springs History and has facts about the area. In November of 2004 the museum was opened. In one area there is a display which lists the “myths” of Hot Springs.


Among such things as baby alligators for sale, a volcano under the city and people being pulled in ostrich driven carts is a section which seems oddly out of place: the claim that Manataka and the sacredness of the Native American site as a myth. Steve Arrison the Executive Director for Hot Springs Convention & Visitors Bureau who was over the project and who manages the tower was questioned as to where he received the information concerning the myths. He replied, “Our research team from Nashville had a meeting with the NPS (National Park Service) (Arrison)(See photo above from actual display. 11/28/05)

            There is also what could be construed as a “hate site” on the Internet that is managed by David Lowe from Bentonville Arkansas


            The web site contains page after page of text making claims against the validity of the Manataka Council and the story of Manataka. The author accuses them of being fakes and “wannabes”. Mr. Blaeuer's paper is quoted as one resource in their references. Though the web site is unprofessional and bordering on childish, it calls into question why such an effort is being made to discredit Manataka. (Lowe).


            [It was later discovered that David Lowe is a former employee of the National Park Service.]

            What has caused this change in attitude and why would there be a few who go to such lengths to discredit Native American history in the area? Why would Native Americans be discriminated against and denied their constitutional right to worship at Gulpha Gorge?

            ...henceforth it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right to freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial   and traditional rites.
(United States)

            Though the efforts to discredit the sacredness and even the name of Manataka are by a handful of “insurgents”, one wonders why this discriminatory campaign, small though it is, is allowed to be propagated by local [federal] government officials. The Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs for the US Department of the Interior was contacted about the issue. She stated they have no position as they deal only with federally recognized tribes. The American Indian Liaisons Office for the Federal National Park whose sole purpose is to act as a go between and aid the relationship between National Parks and Native Americans was then contacted. The gentleman who answered the phone was asked if he knew about the situation in Hot Springs. He stated that he was aware of it. When asked if anything had been done he replied,  “What do you want us to do?” His answers were vague and he would not give an opinion on the situation. He said it was a matter for the local park service
(American Indian Liaison)

“Real” Indians
            An important subject which ties into not only the Manataka situation but also into the entire Native American culture itself is the use of the words “frauds” and “wannabes”. These epithets are used on the anti-Manataka site in describing the people in the MAIC organization but have also been used in many other contexts by Native American’s themselves to label anyone who participates in their culture’s activities but is not a “real” Indian. Though there are obvious exploiters of the culture who market fake items as genuinely Native American or who try to obtain benefits not due to them, for the purposes of this discussion we will focus on the use of these terms by those who feel you are not a Native American unless you belong to a federally recognized tribe. This belief has been fueled by the federal government who only gives aid to Native Americans under narrow guidelines. It has also created bureaucrats out of the tribal leaders who realize that the more individuals they accept into the tribe, the less there is for everyone else. They have therefore become very strict as to who they accept in. This ostracizes any who are of Native American heritage yet are not allowed into a tribe. It also creates a very negative attitude towards anyone in general who wishes to embrace the cultures ideology. In essence it produces a “purist” state of mind not un-similar to that seen with white supremacists sans the violence. In a public letter written by Bob Degnen from Woodside New York, he expressed the inherent problems associated with these narrow guidelines and how it is pitting Indian against Indian:


"...I was outraged by the statement by Kathleen Wesho-Bauer in Leslie Peacock’s article Sept. 22 about grants for Indian students given to students who can’t demonstrate a relationship to federally registered tribes. When (Kathleen) Wesho-Bauer (a card carrying member) condemns us because we are not card-carrying Indians, certified by white bureaucrats, she becomes a   collaborator in the 300-year effort to rid the country of the “Indian problem.” A wedge is being driven between the “treaty-reservation Indians” and those of us who are not. We will not surrender to the latest efforts of the government, or their collaborators, to rob us of our Indian identity.”  Bob Degnen Woodside, N.Y. (Degnen)                      


This topic has been examined in detail by David Arv Bragi, a freelance journalist and enrolled member of the Muscogee Nation in his new book "Invisible Indians: Mixed-Blood Native Americans Who Are Not Enrolled in Federally Recognized Tribes". In an interview concerning the book Mr. Bragi said:

            "...they exist in a kind of legal and ethnic limbo, living as multiracial individuals and families in a country that does not fully acknowledge their multiracial heritage. Many of the unenrolled resent their second-class status in Indian  Country. People at powwows sometimes ask for your [enrollment] card and it is a condition of getting into it," said Charlie Mato-Toyela. "It is a predjudism [sic] that was inflicted on some of us by 'numbering us' like we're in some death camp...."

            Legally we have lost our right to be acknowledged as existing," said Barbara Warren, a Cherokee who promotes Indian Education programs in California's public schools. "We receive ridicule from our own 'blood' relations, who call us  derogatory names such as wannabes, fake Indians, and traitors."

            "...Yet, living outside of the system, unenrolled Native Americans walk their own unique roads to preserve, reclaim and celebrate their heritage. Some lead extraordinary lives as artisans, powwow dancers, educators, activists or community elders..." (Bragi)


            There is a disturbing consequence to this state of affairs.  If less and less Native Americans are allowed into tribes, there will be, over time, less and less officially recognized Native Americans. For all practical purposes, this is a slow form of genocide.

            The Manataka American Indian Council has been labeled by a handful of others as frauds and wannabes. But it is the attitude spoken of above that fuels these remarks.  For any situation in life, there will be antagonists. The fact is the Manataka organization has many CDIB card carrying members and a newsletter that goes out to over 25,000 people.

Answers - History Repeats Itself

            Though it may be difficult if not impossible to get to the absolute truth of the reasons behind this denigration, history may hold a possible clue. Several questions of importance should be asked:


Why in 1832, with all the other issues at hand, and when there were over 10,000 other hot springs in the United States, would President Andrew Jackson make Hot Springs, Arkansas a federal reservation to protect its natural resources?


Was conservation and protecting resources a concern in the 1800’s?


How was this acquisition possible considering:


            “The Constitution does not allow the federal government to own land for anything other than postal and military (forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings) purposes (Article I, vii, 17)?  There has never been a Constitutional Amendment changing this. Any land owned and managed by the Federal Government for any purposes other than those stated is unconstitutional.” United States Constitution Article One, Section 8, Clause 17


            This would mean that the making of Hot Springs Arkansas into a federal reservation was unconstitutional. (Not surprising from a president who defied a Supreme Court ruling which resulted in thousands of Native American deaths.)


Did President Jackson learn from the assessments of the Dunbar and Hunter expedition that Hot Springs was a sacred gathering place for Native Americans?


Did he want to insure that no gatherings would take place in the future as he proceeded to remove the Indians?

Was this “protection of natural resources” a cover for a more sinister and underlying goal?


The Real Issue


            The Manataka American Indian Council does not claim to be a tribe. They are simply an organization embracing Native American culture and keeping their history and the history of Hot Springs alive. They honor and respect all cultures and beliefs and do not discriminate against anyone in joining the organization, which seems to be more in keeping with true Native American principals.


            “…Being a Native American has more to do with ideology, philosophy and sprit than the blood in your veins. Every leaf on a tree, every stone, is unique. Humans are unique. That is the design of the Creator. We should celebrate the diversity that is in us and honor it. That is the strength of our survival. Only [white]man makes us homogenized. The American Indian was never like that.  The differences were unique and sacred and beautiful...”   -Lee Standing Bear Moore. (Moore)


            Is the situation concerning Manataka and Hot Springs Arkansas an anecdotal incident? Or is it a microcosm of a much larger problem… a viewpoint and attitude created years ago by the first white man who came to this continent and wanted what was not his.


            What is happening at Manataka is a small piece of a much larger puzzle from a country whose past is brimming with years and years of blatant, unconcealed racism, persecution and ethnic cleansing. The bigotry is more cunning and manipulative now… as you cannot openly declare genocide on an entire culture and be politically correct. But there are more subtle ways to accomplish the same thing. Hot Springs National Park is certainly doing their part in that respect. This land that was physically taken from the Indians is now being taken in spirit… a wiping out of its sacred and spiritual nature. However the ultimate method of removal is to destroy the culture from within. The current strict tribal laws that declare who is a real Native American and who is not and that pit Indian against Indian may finally achieve what the federal government has not been able to openly accomplish: rid themselves of the Redman.


"They made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they never kept but one: they promised to take our land and they took it. It was not hard to see that the white people coveted every inch of land on which we lived. Greed. Humans wanted the last bit of ground which supported Indian feet. It was land - It has ever been land - for which the White man oppresses the Indian, and to gain possession of which he commits any crime. Treaties that have been  made are vain attempts to save a little of the fatherland, treaties holy to us by the smoke of the pipe - but nothing is holy to the white man. Little by little, with greed and cruelty unsurpassed by the animal, he has taken all. The loaf is gone and now the white man wants the crumbs."   

            -- Luther Standing Bear, Chief of the Oglala, Lakota (1905-1939)


©Graduate Dissertation By Nancy Rector, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, December 1, 2005. All rights reserved.




Works Cited

 A Chronological History of United States Indian Policy and the Indian Response:
from 1789 to the Present Humboldt State University Available  


Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 2005 Relocation Guide. 2004. 1


Arkansas Gazette, July 1, 1986 Who What When


Arrison, Steve Re: tower info Email to the author 28, Nov 2005


American Indian Liaison Personal phone conversations October 28, 2005


American Philosophical Society George Hunter Journals B H912.  Nov 2005. \


Bedinger, M. S Valley of the Vapors : Hot Springs National Park  Philadelphia : Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1974


Blaeuer, Mark Draft Manuscript: "Didn't All The Indians Come Here?"- Separating Fact From Fiction At Hot Springs National Park; ; unpublished


Bragi, David Arv  Native Times. 


City of Hot Springs Web Site August 2005.   


Degnen, Bob Arkansas Times Letters Nov. 17, 2004. 


Discovery of Hot Springs Arkansas by De Soto St. Louis: General Passenger Dept., Missouri Pacific Railway Co., 1893.


Fillmore, July Letter. Hot Springs Sentinel Record  2004 JUL 07


Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences Fulbright Review. Spring 2005. Dale Carpenter Traces Colorful History of Hot Springs in New Documentary


Glasschild, Boe Letter to MAIC Jan 18 2005


Hot Springs Sentinel Record Summer Gathering will be held at Gulpha Gorge campgrounds. 2003 JUN 09


Indian Removal PBS Resource Bank Nov 2005. 


Indianz News Web Site Arkansas panel rejects state recognition study Friday, October 21, 2005


Jackson, Andrew President Andrew Jackson's Case for the Removal Act First Annual Message to Congress, 8 December 1830 


LeBeau, Bennie E. Email Correspondence to MAIC Jan 7 2005


Looking Horse, Arvol Email Corresponsence to MAIC Dec 7 2005


Lowe, David Manataka Exposed 


Lund, John W. Research Associate GHC Bulletin March 1993  Hot Springs, Arkansas   


Miller, George Oxford Saturday Evening Post The Valley of the Vapors – HotSprings, Arkansas Jan-Feb, 1992 


Mitchem, Jeffery M. Arkansas Archeological Survey The Expedition of Hernando DeSoto in Sixteenth Century Arkansas

Arkansas News Fall 1985. Revised May 2000. 


Moore, Lee “Standing Bear” Personal Interview 14 November, 2005


Moore, Lee “Standing Bear” MAIC Web Site Available The Story of Manataka 


National Park Service Web Site    Oct 2005 Site Updated June 15 2005 Available


Old State House Museum Web Site Arkansas News. 1985 Fall


Oregon State Legislature Indian Commissions and Affairs 


Otta, Donulus  Letter to MAIC (no date)


Phillips, Marcus and Long Sandra Indian Folklore Atlas of Hot Springs National Park, Garland County Historical Society. 1994


Phillips, Marcus  Videocassette Hot Springs Stream of Vapors in the Stream of Time, Garland County Library Video 976.741 PHI


Schambach, Frank. Dr. Crossroads of the Past: 12,000 Years of Indian History in Arkansas. 1990) Oct 2005. 15


Spicer, Edward H. Short History of the Indians of the United States Malabar; Krieger, 1983.


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Williams, Larry Garland County Judge,  Garland County Arkansas Web Site  Nov 2005. 




        1These photographs were shown to members of the Manataka Council in a meeting with current parks superintendent Josie Fernandez. The small stone circles were not put there by the Manataka group and did not have anything to do with Native Americans. They were in the shape and design that Wiccan's use. (Who are also in the area).


        2 This information was obtained several months ago by my husband who was visiting with Rick Lewis concerning a business deal. Rick was speaking of the different groups who rent his property in general and stated that the Manataka group was the cleanest and most respectful. It was not obtained from questioning for this paper.


        3A David Lowe works for the National Park Service. At the time of submission of this paper it had not been possible to verify if this was the same David Lowe who owns the anti-Manataka site though attempts have been made.


        4 Kathleen Wesho-Bauer is and active supporter of the anti-Manataka hate site.



            1These photographs were shown to members of the Manataka Council in a meeting with current parks superintendent Josie Fernandez. The small stone circles were not put there by the Manataka group and did not have anything to do with Native Americans. They were in the shape and design that Wiccan's use. (Who are also in the area).

            2 This information was obtained several months ago by my husband who was visiting with Rick Lewis concerning a business deal. Rick was speaking of the different groups who rent his property in general and stated that the Manataka group was the cleanest and most respectful. It was not obtained from questioning for this paper.

            3A David Lowe works for the National Park Service. At the time of submission of this paper it had not been possible to verify if this was the same David Lowe who owns the anti-Manataka site though attempts have been made.

            4 Kathleen Wesho-Bauer is and active supporter of the anti-Manataka hate site.