Manataka American Indian Council                                     Volume XI  Issue 06  JUNE 2007


Manataka - Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow 



Faster download!  The Smoke Signal this month is on 3 web pages.





2 Legends of Old: Creation Story - Mayan


Letters to the Editor:

8 Excellent Letters
2 Politics Watch: Steal Their Land, Steal Their Money
2 Elder's Meditations: Rolling Thunder, Cherokee
2 Member Recognition: David Quiet Wind Furr
2 Organic Consumer Watch: Pet  Food Contamination
2 Health Watch: Artificial Sweetener Explodes Internally
2 Fluoride Watch: Arsenic in my Fluoride?  CDC admits Yes
2 Animal Rights and Wrongs: A Extreme Wolf Killing in Alaska
2 Sacred Site Watch: Ancient Rhode Island Burial Site Threatened






Creation Story - Mayan
From the Popul-Vuh of the Quiche Maya


"God made some men of mud, but they were very soft and limp and couldn't see. They could speak, but what they said didn't make sense. When they got wet the couldn't even stand up. God saw that they were of no use so he broke them up and said "I will try again".


"Then he made men out of wood. The wooden men were better; they could walk and talk. They built houses and had children, and there were very many of them. But they were dry and yellow, and their faces had no expression, because they had no minds nor souls or hearts. They beat their dogs and they burned the bottoms of their cooking pots. They had forgotten how they were made and could not remember any of the names of God. So he said.

"These men will not do either. I must destroy them also".


And he sent a great flood and the houses of the wooden men fell down. The wooden men wanted to escape, but the animals they had starved and beaten, and cooking pots they had burned, and the trees whose branches they had chopped off, all turned against them and wouldn't help them. Only a few of them escaped from the flood, and it is said that their descendants are the monkeys.


And it still hadn't dawned; and God wanted to make real men when the dawn came and the sun rose. . . .


He took ears of yellow corn of white corn and ground them into meal. With the corn meal he make nine kinds of liquor, and these became man's strength and energies. With the dough of the meal he shaped the body and he made four men, very strong and handsome.


They were called the Wizard of the Fatal Laugh, the Wizard of the Night, the Careless and the Black Wizard. They were gifted with intelligence and they managed to know everything there is in the world. While the men slept, he made four women very carefully, and when the men woke, each found at his side a beautiful wife.

When they looked they would see everything that was around them, and they constantly contemplated the arch of the sky and the round face of the earth. 


"Thank you for our life!" they said. "We can see, we can hear, we can move and think and speak, we feel and know everything, we can see everything in the earth and in the sky. Thank you for having made us, Oh Father!"


Then the Creator was troubled, for he realized that these men could see too much and too far, so that they would not really be men, but gods. He saw that he had to change them so that they could be what he needed. So he leaned down and blew mist in their eyes and clouded their vision, like breathing on a mirror, and from then on nothing was clear to their sight except what was close to them.


The four men and their wives went up on a mountain and waited for the dawn. First they saw the shining face of the great star, the Morning Star which comes ahead of the sun, and burned incense and unwrapped three gifts to offer the sun. Then the sun came up. Then the puma and the jaguar roared and all the birds stretched their wings and sang, and the men and their wives danced with joy because the sun had risen.

From Blue Panther Keeper of Stories.



"Do not seek to follow in the footsteps of the men of old; Seek what they sought."
~Matsuo Basho






Manataka receives dozens of letters each week. Space does not allow us to publish all letters but we make a concerted effort to

print letters that are representative of a majority. Let us know if there is a topic you feel needs to be addressed.


Senate Flushes Herbal Medicines....

Dear Manataka, 

This pertains to the law that was recently passed in the Senate that effectively has the power to regulate our access to dietary supplements & basically nulls DESHA. This means herbs, vitamins, name it. This was going to be the land of the free..... 

Have you been keeping up with this?


White Spirit Born

Dear Manataka,

We are proud to announce our new addition to the herd, which arrived this morning (Thursday, May 17, 2007) at 10:40 A.M. A boy we named "White Spirit" his mother is Sunrise Spirit father by Arizona Spirit. This baby makes our ninth white baby in the herd.

LOL to all of you
Dena & Jim and the White Buffalo family

I sit in silence and see the harmony growing strong


Dear Manataka,

Thank you once again for a beautiful  publication of your newsletter. You all do such great work. I  read and feel the love that you all put into it.  I acknowledge your hard work and dedication. You give this young spirit much hope for the future of the sacred hoop. Your hard work helps me find the desire to keep learning so i can teach my children a better way. The way of the Earth, I take my responsibility of being a caretaker of the earth so much more seriously now that I have contact with people of like mindedness. I feel the good you do in this world...and I support you all and send prayers up on the smoke to join your efforts of healing the sacred hoop. I sit in silence and see the harmony growing strong. Our children will know a better world.  I feel it.
I will honor my elders by never stopping learning.  Thank you for helping me continue to learn.

Love and Respect


Niki Godfrey


Thanks From Uruguay

Dear friends,

First of all let me congratulate you for your wonderful web page. My name is Gustavo and I like very much your spirituality. I would like to have friends from the Lakota people to share and learn about their culture and spirituality. How can I do that? Your friend from Paysandu, Uruguay, South America.


Gustavo Capuccio



FDA Limits Health Freedom




There is a crisis in health freedom. On April 30, 2007 the FDA closed public comment period on a "Guidance" which will classify every alternative practice as medicine so that only licensed physicians can carry out the procedure AND vitamins, minerals, herbs, etc., will suddenly become "untested drugs" which will be forbidden.

Bad? Real Bad! But public outcry can stop this assault on your health and your freedom.

Spread the word! Tell everyone in your Circle of Influence, professionals, alternative practitioners, nutrient and herb companies, everyone! Let them know how important their participation is to make sure the FDA backs off from this repressive course.

Please share this link with them and urge them to take action:

Yours in health and freedom,

Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation


Steal Their Lands, Their Heritage and Their Pride


Native/First  Americans were called many things by their conquerors ...savages, blood thirsty, dirty, lazy drunken, wild ,wooly and full of fleas.

Soon some came to believe what was said of them and in so doing they became their name.

Man knows himself completely until he makes his first compromise. The more he compromises the more he takes in that which is not him. Soon he forget who or what he is...he becomes his name rather than receiving  his true name , the name that is him.

Shame is fear based, it is of the Black Road . The opposite of fear is love,  the Red Way.

Today some Native People refuse to share their beliefs and knowledge out of fear that it will be stolen or be made fun of ...more shame and fear.

Some Native People refuse to acknowledge that all men are brothers...out of fear and shame.

Remember always the Story of Turtle Island , remember that The Creator promised that one day all the people would come together  to form a scared circle, let go of their fear  and share what they learned while apart. And there will be a time of cooperation, peace and prosperity.

Mitakuye Oyasin,(we are all children of the same God)
Abe WalkingBear Sanchez


Protests Cherokee Nation Vote

Hello Editor

I subscribe to the Smoke Signal News and enjoy it very much.

I am curious though, if Smoke Signals is going to say anything about the recent vote by the Cherokee to
expel members who are mixed race or descendents of Blacks.

This is a terrible decision and one that should not be ignored.

I have a good friend, Joemaine Perry, who is Muskogee Indian and also black. This decision affects all
natives, not just the Cherokee.

--Andria Delgado


Like most Manataka readers, we know that racism, greed and consolidation of political power were at the root of the despicable vote to disenfranchise black Cherokees.   We don't ignore it, we simply do not dwell on negative political issues that serve to further divide.  The last word has not be heard on this issue.  A day of truth and justice will prevail.   ~Editor


Whose History?

O'ciyo Manataka:

This is in response to a page in your website that refers to a Bio of Chief Oconostotah. Firstly , the Chief in this profile is Cunne-GA-Togue or Standing Turkey and not Oconostota; they are two different chiefs. The
portrait was painted in England in 1762 and is titled Cunee Chote: This was a corruption of what was misinterpreted as Cunne-ga-togue of Chote, the capitol of the Cherokee Nation at this point in time.


O'conostota was actually the most respected person in the Cherokee Nation but Standing Turkey was appointed by the National Council to serve as Uka or principal Chief for a 7 year term. During the Revolutionary war in 1776-1783.

Oconostotah, despite his reluctance at the onset, did eventually take the position of head war captain over Dragging Canoe. I discovered many letters from the Virginia colonial records that substantiates this claim; these are letters addressed directly to him by the rebel  leaders of Virginia. As far as his death, it is said that he died in 1783, his grave is allegedly the one at Old Chota town (the Chota memorial ) in Tennessee.


Standing Turkey remained a Chief and can be located on the Treaty of 1798 and a letter addressed to
him in 1803, from the leaders of Georgia.  I ask that you discontinue this page of your website, as it is inaccurate and this means that your misinforming the public and all Cherokee people who might read it.


As far as the State of Arkansas [History Commission], I have an attorney looking into it. They are truly and deliberately corrupting our history. There are no federal law's that we can sue under, but there has to be something that will force them to stop this!! We continue to solicit your support in this matter.


"Chiefs of Nations Crash Course" is available at my website


Tom Vickers








Steal Their Land, Steal Their Money
Robert J. Miller


Robert J. Miller is a law professor at Lewis & Clark College and the chief justice of the Grand Ronde Tribe. He is the author of Native America: Discovered and Conquered



The United States owes a lot to the Indian Nations.  American Indians helped early European settlers survive and succeed on this continent and American Indian governments contributed extensively to the political thinking that led to the creation of the federal government
by our Founders.

The United States, however, also owes over 300,000 American Indians something else: up to $200 billion for the mismanagement of their property over the past one hundred years.

In 1996, the Native American Rights Fund filed a class-action law suit against the United States for the mismanagement of tribal and individual Indian assets-Cobell v. Kempthorne.

The case has already resulted in more than 12 federal court opinions but has not even progressed beyond the discovery phase.  The federal government and its attorneys have actively resisted this case every step of the way.  In fact, two Cabinet secretaries and the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs were held in contempt of court in 1999 and fined more than $625,000 for discovery violations.

Recently, the government went so far as to remove federal district court judge Royce Lamberth from the case for his alleged growing bias in favor of the Indian plaintiffs.

Originally, this case was discussed as being worth between $2-10 billion in damages that the U.S. either embezzled from Indians or had just "lost" through its incompetence.  Today, even Attorney General Gonzalez believes that the case may be worth up to $200 billion for the over 300,000 plaintiffs.

The case arose from the complicated history of federal Indian policies and because the United States became the trustee for the Indian Nations and individual Indian people.

Starting with the passage of the General Allotment Act in 1887, the United States has been responsible for the oversight and management of most of the tribal and Indian land and assets in Indian country.

Under trust law, the U.S. was responsible for reasonably leasing and developing the land, then collecting the rents and profits and paying them to the Indian owners.  The allegation of the Cobell plaintiffs-and the
widely accepted truth of the matter-is that the U.S. has failed miserably in exercising its fiduciary and trust responsibilities to carefully protect these assets, collect the monies due and pay them to the Indian

Under the law, the U.S. owes an accounting to the Cobell plaintiffs, identifying all these funds and then personally paying for any lost or uncollected funds.  The U.S. has actively resisted performing an accounting and seems reticent to find out what it owes these Indian people-people who are among the poorest of the poorest U.S. citizens.

Instead, the United States has claimed that it would cost more than $500 million to perform an accounting for the past 120 years of its trusteeship over Indian assets.  The U.S. appears to be fighting a rearguard action in
court while hoping for some kind of legislative fix.

Many people would like to see the Cobell case disappear: Congress has twice already considered "midnight" riders to kill the case.  Senator John McCain and the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs have talked about
proposing settlement amounts between $7-8 billion and recent Senate and House bills have proposed such amounts.

On March 1, 2007, the Bush administration responded to questions from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.  The administration now proposes to settle all the trust mismanagement claims and to pay for all the needed Indian trust reform efforts with $7 billion.

This, in spite of the acknowledgement that the true price tag of the lost and mismanaged funds could run into the hundreds of billions of dollars.

In their letter, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne told the Senate Committee that the administration was prepared to "invest" $7 billion to settle all trust mismanagement claims.

But they also appear to demand that the Congress extinguish the government's liability for all future trust claims.  This last statement is the most egregious aspect of this sordid history.

The United States government apparently wants to continue managing Indian assets but, at the same time, wants to prevent any future possible liability, no matter how woefully it might manage and fail to protect
these assets.

The proposal was immediately called a "bad-faith offer" by the Cobell attorney.

You might also call it a bad-faith settlement if it were your assets that the U.S. controlled but wanted to avoid any responsibility for.  Senator Byron Dorgan, D-N.D., the chairman of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee,

This is the first time that the federal government has acknowledged a multi-billion dollar liability for the mismanagement of the Indian trust funds over the past century and more.  That is a significant admission.

A more significant admission would be for the United States to live up to the debt it owes these Indian people and to account for and pay them the money that is legally theirs but that has been mismanaged and withheld
from them for the past hundred years.




Submitted by Abe WalkingBear Sanchez




The pet food poisoning scandal that has prompted the largest recall of pet foods in history has spread into the livestock and meat sector. This week, the USDA admitted that the contaminated food ingredients that have killed thousands of pets across the U.S. were also used to feed hogs and chickens that have already been processed and eaten by several million Americans. Over three million chickens and pigs have consumed the tainted food. Although there have been no government studies done on the toxicity of this contamination, the FDA claims the risk is low. It’s important to note that organic animal feed was not contaminated in this latest incident, underlining the obvious point that pet owners and meat eaters should give preference to safer, more nutritious organic products


  • Each year, the average American consumes 260 pounds of imported food.

  • 98.7% of foods imported into the U.S. are NOT inspected by the FDA for safety.

  • Of the scant 1.3% of imported foods the FDA tests, over 200 shipments of grains, fish, vegetables, nuts, spice, oils and other imported foods are detained each month for issues ranging from filth to unsafe food coloring to contamination with pesticides to salmonella. The other 98.7% of untested food is immediately green-lighted for the American diet.

  • The U.S. imports almost twice as much food today as it did just ten years ago, yet the FDA's budget for testing imports has been cut nearly in half since 2000.


This month's issue of E Magazine includes interviews with leading advocates for ecological shopping, including OCA's Environmental Scientist Craig Minowa. Here are five quick tips for becoming a green shopper:

  1. Switch to environmentally friendly cleaning supplies. The use of conventional cleaners exposes your family and our environment to some very nasty toxic chemicals.

  2. If you buy only one or two organic items, make them milk and meat. Most conventional milk and meat are produced on factory farms that feed their animals massive amounts of pesticide and fossil-fuel intensive conventional corn, at the same time creating massive manure lagoons that contaminate local ground water.

  3. Be as conscious about the packaging as you are about the product. The production and disposal of packaging takes a heavy environmental toll. You can eliminate 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year by simply reducing your waste by 10%. While you're at it, bring your own shopping bags.

  4. Buy local and regional, or at least USA-grown, whenever possible, to reduce energy and pollution from long transportation. But of course some products are not produced in the US.. For overseas products, look for the organic and Fair Trade label.

  5. Buy in bulk. If you regularly buy a certain product, consider buying it in bulk. It usually has less packaging, is more affordable, and requires fewer trips to the store.

This article is brought to you by ORGANIC BYTES, a publication of Organic Consumers Association 






"...because if you believe in something, and believe in it long enough, it will come into being."

-Rolling Thunder, Cherokee


We are created by the Great One to accomplish His will through our mental pictures or visions. Our thoughts are three dimensional:  words, pictures and feelings. We create the vision by thinking the words and we create feeling for the vision by feeling enthusiasm, desire, commitment and other strong beliefs. Once we create the vision, we move toward and become like that which we think about. All visions are tested by our self talk; for ex-

ample, "This isn't going to happen, where is the money coming from anyway?" When this happens, we need to let go of the test and focus on the vision. Why? Because God said if we believe it long enough, He will guarantee it !!!


Great One, let my beliefs be

strong today.

Help me to have faith in

my visions.

By Don Coyhis





Manataka "Spirit Award"

for exemplary volunteer service to the organization and community was awarded by unanimous decision of the Elder Council to the following:


It is our normal practice to give this award to a committee member or dedicated volunteer who largely remains out of the spot light, however, this month's Spirit Award goes to the most visible and popular member of the Elder Council, David Quiet Wind Furr who is seldom recognized for his tremendous contribution to the growth and health of Manataka.


Quite Wind is a powerhouse of energy and send his positive messages flowing throughout Manataka that brings great light and hope to our people.  David contributes countless hours and gives his heart and soul to the sacred work of Manataka.


The next time you see David Quite Wind, give him a big hug and thank him for all the great work he does for the people of Manataka. 







Artificial Sweetener Explodes Internally - Avoid it in 2007

By Shane Ellison, M.Sc.




If there were a contest for the best example of total disregard for human life the victor would be McNeil Nutritionals - makers of SplendaTM.  Manufacturers of VioxxTM and LipitorTM would tie for a very distant second. 


McNeil Nutritionals is the undisputed drug-pushing champion for disguising their drug SplendaTM as a sweetener.  Regardless of its drug qualities and potential for side-effects, McNeil is dead set on putting it on every kitchen table in America.  Apparently, VioxxTM and LipitorTM makers can't stoop so low as to deceptively masquerade their drug as a candy of sort.  There is no question that their products are drugs and by definition come with negative side-effects.  Rather than sell directly to the consumer, these losers have to go through the painful process of using doctors to prescribe their dangerous goods.


A keen student in corporate drug dealing, McNeil learned from aspartame and saccharine pushers that if a drug tastes sweet then let the masses eat it in their cake.  First though, you have to create a facade of natural health.  They did this using a cute trade name that kind of sounds like splendid and packaged it in pretty colors.  Hypnotized, the masses were duped instantly.  As unquestionably as a dog humps your leg, millions of diabetics (and non-diabetics) blindly eat sucralose under the trade name SplendaTM in place of real sugar (sucrose).   


SplendaTM was strategically released on April fools day in 1998.  This day is reserved worldwide for hoaxes and practical jokes on friends and family, the aim of which is to embarrass the gullible.  McNeil certainly succeeded. 


The splendid SplendaTM hoax is costing gullible Americans $187 million annually. (1)  While many people "wonder" about the safety of SplendaTM they rarely question it.  Despite its' many "unknowns" and inherent dangers, SplendaTM demand has grown faster than its supply.  No longer do I have to question my faith in fellow Man.  He is not a total idiot, just a gullible one.  McNeil jokesters are laughing all the way to the bank. 


Splenda is not as harmless as McNeil wants you to believe.  A mixture of sucralose, maltodextrine and dextrose (a detrimental simple sugar), each of the not-so-splendid SplendaTM ingredients has downfalls.  Aside from the fact that it really isn't "sugar and calorie free," here is one big reason to avoid the deceitful mix...Think April fools day:


SplendaTM contains a potential poison







From Crystal Harvey, MAIC Correspondent

Fluoride Action Network






Arsenic in my Fluoride?  CDC admits Yes



New York – March 12, 2007 -- Trace amounts of arsenic are found in fluoride chemicals added to drinking water supplies, reports the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) website. (1)

Fluoridation is a controversial attempt to reduce tooth decay in tap-water consumers.


Fluoridation chemicals - sodium fluoride, sodium fluorosilicate, and fluorosilicic acid (FSA) – are all derived from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer, reports the CDC.  Trace amounts of unwanted contaminants, such as antimony, barium, beryllium, arsenic and others, are allowed to remain in fluoridation chemicals before flowing through America’s faucets (2)


The CDC reports, tests by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) revealed arsenic was present in sample batches of FSA. When trace amounts were present, the treated water had an average of 0.43 parts per billion (ppb) of arsenic, with a high of 1.66 ppb attributable to the fluoride additive. (2)


The NSF sets the allowable level of arsenic in fluoridation chemicals at 2.5 ppb. The maximum contaminant level of arsenic in treated water is 10 ppb, set by the Environmental Protection Agency.

However, trace levels of arsenic in drinking water increase a person's risk of developing cancer, according to a report from the prestigious US National Academy of Sciences. “People drinking water containing just one part per billion of arsenic have an increased risk of developing bladder or lung cancer of one in 1,000,” reports New Scientist magazine. (3)


In an analysis of 25 states, the National Resources  Defense Council  found  about 8,000 U.S. water systems, serving 57,000,000 people, contained arsenic levels at 1 ppb or higher.(4)


“Fluoridation has proven useless in fighting tooth decay in America’s low-income population as the recent unfortunate ‘tooth-decay’ death of  a 12-year-old Maryland boy living in a fluoridated area has proven,” says lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation. “No child is or ever was fluoride-deficient. But many are dentist-deficient,” says Beeber.


 “No water company should purposely be adding toxins to water supplies – even in trace amounts and even when it’s attached to a chemical perceived to be beneficial,” says Beeber.


“Besides, modern science establishes that fluoridation is ineffective at reducing tooth decay, harmful to health and a waste of taxpayer money,” says Beeber.


"We're glad the CDC finally admits that arsenic can be found in fluoridation chemicals. But CDC should go further and list all undesirable chemicals and impurities allowed in the fluoridation chemicals, and make it publicly known so consumers truly can make an informed choice," says Beeber.



Contact:  Paul S. Beeber, Esq., President and General Counsel, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.

Fluoridation News Releases
Tooth Decay Crises in Fluoridated Areas
Fluoride Action Network
Fluoride Journal



(1) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dep’t of Health and Human Services – Water Fluoridation – Guidelines & Recommendations – Water Fluoridation Additives (accessed March 11, 2007)

(2) April 24,2000 letter from NSF International to State of Florida, Department of Public Health

(3) New Scientist,Trace arsenic in water raises cancer risk,” by Emma Young, September 14, 2001

(4) National Resources Defense Council, “Arsenic and Old Laws.” Chapter 1 - Arsenic has been found at levels of health concern in the tap water of tens of millions of Americans in 25 states





No offense intended for any individuals or tribes.










Something strange is going on in Alaska. Officials have become so extreme in their efforts to kill wolves that they've proposed downright gruesome measures to annihilate these furry canines. The amazing news is that our emergency efforts with Defenders of Wildlife have defeated officials' more barbaric proposals.

That said, over 96 wolves have been gunned down so far and Alaskan officials plan to escalate the killing over the next three weeks! Support Defenders of Wildlife's emergency campaign to stop extreme wolf-killing:

Two of the most barbaric proposals defeated with help from concerned citizens like you:

PROPOSED: $150 bounty for killing a wolf, even if she's about to birth her puppies, so long as the hunter chops off her legs and presents them as proof of the kill. (DEFEATED last week!)

PROPOSED: Gas subsidies for aerial wolf hunters who cruelly chase wolves from the air before landing to shoot them point-blank when they're too tired to run any further. (DEFEATED this week!)

Please help Defenders of Wildlife continue to the fight against Alaska's extreme aerial gunning agenda. Alaskan voters don't support it, and neither do wildlife scientists. But, with extreme measures like this continuously thrown on the table, we must keep fighting to prevent hundreds of wolf killings before the winter is over.

Officials hope to kill nearly 600 more wolves before the aerial gunning season's scheduled  (more than 96 have been gunned down so far). If the latest proposal to speed wolf- killing – the introduction of helicopter gunning – is permitted, the number of wolves killed could spike dramatically.

Some of these wolves are preparing to birth puppies and desperately need your help.

Thank you for helping today! It feels so good to see what a difference we're making!



~Submitted by Sheri Awi Anida Waya Burnett




Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe moves to World Stage


(North Smithfield, Rhode Island, USA)  Reuters News Service reported today that development threatens the future of Rock Piles estimated by archaeologist and URI Professor Frederick Meli as spanning at least 230 acres (93 hectares) and has both North Smithfield officials and Indians of the oldest state recognized tribe concerned.


The Seaconke Wampanoag tribe claims the piles are a memorial and sacred burial place kept hidden for centuries.  The tribe claims it is as important to them as Arlington National Cemetery is to the United States

Historians, state officials, private developers and tribal leaders in Rhode Island agree that Nipsachuck woods in North Smithfield is culturally and historically significant.  Despite this historic significance, Narragansett Improvement Co. has said they will press on with plans to build a 122-lot housing project over 200 acres (80-hectares) in the area near the Massachusettsborder.

The company claims their hired archaeologist studied the stones and concluded they were likely left in piles by early European settlers who built a network of stone walls in the area.   "I don't believe any of these Indian artifacts are on my land," Reuters reports company president John Everson as saying.  "The whole area is very stony."

The Seaconke Wampanoag historian has advised since the story broke that the deed for that land contained specific covenants limiting its use to grazing cattle and is specific that houses not be built on it.  It also stated that any Indians remaining on that land were required by that deed of sale to wall up their fields from the English cattle.  “Those covenants regarding development were in place for a reason, and now you know why,” the historian said citing the deed recorded at RI Colony Records 1, 33.  "Any title researcher can verify this restriction," he said.

The Reuters Story by Jason Szep is at:

Reuters Photos by Brian Snyder are at:


Bob Cooper,  401-447-6474 Days/Evenings

Peter Bauer,  401-823-6890



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