Manataka American Indian
Council Volume XIlI Issue 01 JANUARY 2009
Page 3 of 3 Pages
Open the doors and let 'em in! The
upcoming Gatherings will have no restrictions on attendance - members and
non-members alike may join in the prayerful ceremonies. Current members,
former members and guests are
required to request an invitation. Manataka will
continue to not advertise or promote Gatherings to the public.
The January issue features
Chapter 12 - Conclusion
13 Part series on the founding of the United States of
America and the previously misunderstood and often discounted, yet tremendous
contributions of American Indians in the process.
Native America and the Evolution of
By Dr. Donald A. Grinde, Jr. and Dr. Bruce E. Johansen
Original Artwork by John Kahionhes Fadden
Foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr.
Foreword by Vine Deloria, Jr.
Chapter 1 - Vox Americana
Chapter 2 - Perceptions of America's Native
Chapter 3 -
Natural Man In An Unnatural Land
Chapter 4 -
Chapter 5 -
In The Wilderness
Chapter 6 - White Roots Reach Out
Chapter 7 - Mohawks, Axes and Taxes
Chapter 8 - A
Chapter 9 - American Synthesis
Chatper 10 - Kindling
a New Grand Council Fire
Persistence of an Idea
Chapter 12 - Conclusion
A New Year, A New Life...
The month of January is here. This means we have a new
year, and it could mean a new start in life. In other words, we get to
celebrate the year past and be so grateful for all the many things we
received. Then we also have a New Year to celebrate for the new
experiences and lessons we shall receive.
I have friends that have a celebration for both the Old
year and the coming New Year, with hopes it shall take them in a new
direction in some ways for improvements.
The celebration for the Old Year passing is the burning
bowl celebration. They write down on a paper those things that took
place that was not for their best interest. Then these pieces of paper
are placed into the bowl and burned. Then everyone takes another piece
of paper and writes what they would like to achieve the next year. This
list is kept and placed where they could see it each day. These are
refereed to as goals or resolutions for the New Year.
In the past, I have seen both goals and resolutions
broken, either before the month is ended or some time after that.
Perhaps you have herd someone say, “If you continue to do
the same thing the same way each time, you are sure to get the same
results.” This means that if we want different results, we much change.
A change in our way of thinking will change our lives.
Manataka: A Rainbow of
By Linda VanBibber, Manataka Correspondent
The time of
the Winter Solstice was held sacred by the five-fingered race long before
recorded history. All over our Mother Earth the celebration of the birth of
the Sun/Son has created a rainbow of traditions to express joy and hope to all
northern hemisphere, from the time of the Autumn Equinox until the time of the
Winter Solstice, the days grow progressively shorter and the nights
progressively longer. This phenomena is caused by the tilt of the Mother
Earth’s axis that points to the North Star.
dances in rotation around the Sun. With this dance and the tilt of axis, the
Seasons are created. In the Northern Hemisphere, the Sun appears high in Father
Sky during the summer and very low during the winter. Sun is at its lowest
elevation at the Winter Solstice, the longest night of the year.
over America there can be found stone structures created to mark the movements
of Sun, his strengthening and waning in the Equinoxes and Solstices.
Winter is a
difficult time for indigenous peoples in the Northern Hemisphere. The abundance
of summer plants is no longer available. Only meat and stored provisions allowed
them to survive this long darkness and cold. Each day grows shorter, each night
longer. And so they waited and watched for the new Birth of Brother Sun to
bring hope and increasing warmth.
and joy of the People was great when the days were noted to be again lengthening
in promise of spring and a return of abundance. Many months of cold winter
remained, but hope was born with the gradual return of the Sun. Solstice
celebration could occur as soon as this ‘rebirth’ was affirmed, generally about
four or five days after the Longest Night of the Winter Solstice. And this is
so to this day.
First Nations Peoples of North American celebrated this great hope in many
ways. The Pueblo People made prayer sticks and prayed for abundance for their
people. The Hopi observed special rituals to assist the Sun in his rebirth and
return lasting 20 days and followed by feasting and celebration.
With cold and limited provisions pressing hard upon the People, we might think
that hoarding and protecting of the provisions for personal use might be the
natural order during these winter months. But this is not so. Regardless how
limited provisions might be, the Elders and the children of the tribes are fed
and receive care. Traditions abound concerning the feeding of strangers during
the winter. And not just what crumbs one might have to share, but of giving of
One way that many
Native Americans still observe the Winter Solstice is with the making of Prayer
Sticks. The Prayer sticks, which are named after an ancestor or other Spirit
are made several days before the Solstice and are ‘planted’ in small holes on
the day of the Solstice.
If your family would
like to make Prayer Sticks this Solstice, the first step is to gather the
sticks. The stick is generally taken from a cedar tree after making an offering
of tobacco to the tree and asking permission to take some of it’s branches. The
sticks are to be long enough to measure from the elbow to the tips of the
fingers of the family member making the stick and should have a fork at one
end. The bark can be left on the stick or stripped off. A feather and a bit of
tobacco wrapped in red cloth are tied to the forks of the stick. Other things
that the person wishes to honor may be added to the stick such as bits of bone,
fur or leather. As these items are being added, the person making the stick
should be praying silently, requesting aid and honoring the Spirit for whom the
stick is named.
Today, most Native Americans observe Christmas. The earliest mention of a
Christmas celebration in North America occurred in 1641. A Jesuit missionary,
Jean de Brefeuf, lived with the Hurons and composed a Christmas carol in the
Huron language which told the story of the birth of the Infant Jesus -- with a
few details changed from the biblical story. Father Brebeuf described a baby
wrapped in rabbit skin, sleeping in a loged of broken bark and visited by
hunters with gifts of skins. This carol, called Jesous Ahatonnia (Jesus is
born) was still being sung 100 years later.
traditions of Christmas, introduced by Europeans, have continued to be entwined
with the Solstice traditions of the First Nations people. Many of these
traditions associated with Christian Christmas today, such as holly, mistletoe
and ‘Christmas’ trees were also originally the elements of Winter Solstice
celebrations around the world. The traditions of Christmas everywhere truly
reflect a Rainbow of celebrations rooted in joy.
"Shall we liken Christmas to the web in a loom?
There are many weavers, who
work into the pattern the experience of their
lives. When one generation goes,
another comes to take up the weft where it has
been dropped. The pattern
changes as the mind changes, yet never begins
quite anew. At first, we are not
sure that we discern the pattern, but at last
we see that, unknown to the weavers
themselves, something has taken shape before
our eyes, and that they have made
something very beautiful, something which
compels our understanding."
--Earl W. Count,
4,000 Years of Christmas
Everyday is Christmas at Manataka. We honor all traditions of hope and joy at
this time and at every time of the year. We seek to center our lives around the
Spirit of Giving and walking the good Red Road. We seek to make everything we
do a Spiritual act.
Manataka™ American Indian Council is a non-profit, 501(3C),
tax-exempt, educational, multi-cultural and religious organization made up of
American Indian and non-Indian people dedicated to sharing our understanding of
the Spiritual way of Native peoples. Manataka also offers a variety of
community services and sponsors several public educational events throughout the
year. For more information on Manataka American Indian Council visit
No offense intended for any individuals or tribes.
When told the reason
for Daylight Saving time the old Indian said...
"Only a white man would believe that you could cut a foot off the top of a
blanket and sew it to the bottom of a blanket and have a longer blanket."
Spiritual and Natural Medicine
By Harvey Doyle,
are inter-dependant of the physical, mental, spiritual and natural ways that
leads us to a way of better understanding on how to pursue natural medicine for
our health and healing of our people.
Our health issues must be
surrounded by harmony and balance. Our way as Native American has always been
“May or Can I help you?” This is the old way and this is the way that we should
strive to keep the Medicine Way or Medicine Wheel alive in our lives. This is
the Native American traditional approach as taught in the stories and by our
Elders that we are “helpers”. The Cherokee and other Nations were among many
tribes that contributed remedies and herbs from the Green Pharmacy of Mother
Appalachian folk medicine
brought us many remedies for “curing the ills of folks”, as my grandfather used
to say. Garlic to fight colds, tea bags for canker sores; baking soda for
itches; and ginger for digestion and for calming the stomach. Others in the
mountains of the southeastern US used Ice for the “cure all”, to relieve insect
bites, sinuses, toothaches, pain and swelling, if you had a refrigerator. We had
an Ice Box and could not afford much ice. An Ice Truck delivered it in large
blocks. Other times we would hang a bucket in the well to keep items cool. I can
remember some people had dirt floors. These are a few of the many remedies used
by my grandfather who learned them from my grandmother who died rather young age
of 47 from a diabetic coma. She had 12 children. My mother was also a border
line diabetic and the only way that I did not become a diabetic was controlling
and watching my diet. I knew at a young age that I could be prone to diabetes so
I always did watch my sugar intake and try to eat proper foods that helped my
body cope with it and I guess that is why I am not a diabetic today and I still
watch what I eat. Diabetes is a disease that is prevalent in Native Americans.
A Great NEW Gift IDEA for the Holidays
THE SOAP THAT GROWS ON TREESTM
"What does it matter how long I pray, so long as my prayers are answered?"
--Sitting Bull, Hunkpapa Lakota
Too often we worry about the words we use in prayer. We focus on the
words. What really counts is the spirit and intent behind our words. It is the
spirit and intent that the Creator responds to. He reads and listens to our
heart. Prayer isn't only when we fold our hands and pray. Prayer is when
we talk to the Creator even when we are walking down a path or sitting on a hill
or walking in the mountains. The Elders say, walk in prayer. We should be
willing to talk with the Great One.
today I will pray to You all day.
Listen to my heart.
By Don Coyhis
know this article is not American Indian-related, but it is too good to
Women: 40 and over...
By Andy Rooney, CBS 60 Minutes Correspondent
As I grow in age, I value women over 40 most of
all.Here are just a few reasons why:
A woman over 40 will never wake you in the middle of the night and ask,
'What are you thinking?' She doesn't care what you think. If a woman
over 40 doesn't want to watch the game, she doesn't sit around whining
about it. She does something she wants to do, and it's usually more
interesting. Women over 40 are dignified. They seldom have a screaming
match with you at the opera or in the middle of an expensive restaurant.
Of course, if you deserve it, they won't hesitate to shoot you if they
think they can get away with it. Older women are generous with praise,
often undeserved. They know what it's like to be unappreciated. Women
get psychic as they age.
You never have to confess your sins to a woman over
40. Once you get past a wrinkle or two, a woman over 40 is far sexier
than her younger counterpart. Older women are forthright and honest.
They'll tell you right off if you are a jerk if you are acting like one.
You don't ever have to wonder where you stand with her.
Yes, we praise women over 40 for a multitude of
reasons. Unfortunately, it's not reciprocal. For every stunning, smart,
well-coiffed, hot woman over 40, there is a bald, paunchy relic in
yellow pants making a fool of himself with some 22-year old waitress.
Ladies, I apologize.
For all those men who say, 'Why buy the cow when you can get the milk
for free?', here's an update for you. Nowadays 80% of women are against
marriage. Why? Because women realize it's not worth buying an entire pig
just to get a little sausage!
Andy Rooney is a really smart guy!
Life isn't about waiting for the storm to pass... It's about learning to
dance in the rain.
~Submitted by Jennifer Whitefeather Attaway
AMERICAN INDIAN SOUPS AND STEWS
~ From Momfeather Erickson ~
By Juli Maltagliati
The spotted fawn
is as much the
stuff of dreams
as the arms that
We go forth into
the ethereal forest
in search of the
who birthed her.
I gaze down
of white silken
fur on soft brown
with the ambrosia
of newness and
I trod onward
into the woods,
fawn to my breast
enveloped in prayer beads
and trusting in
exude coolness and calm,
cushions each step,
with no trace of
the mother doe.
Still we travel
on together with sanguine expectancy,
steadfast in the
knowledge we will find her,
guiding us deep
into the feral
and ceremony work. Creator heals and brings peace.
Prayer Needed - Sickness, Injury,
Carlena Joe and Melvin
Bowman. Two good friends separated by
space and time need your prayers to keep their
relationship strong with clear communication, love,
respect, and patience. Carlena's mother is
diabetic and needs your prayers as well.
~Bonnie Whitecloud 01-14-09
2-year old needs prayer. He is diagnosed with fluid
on the brain and is going to be sent to a
specialist. Pray that doctors will find the exact
problem and for his healing. Helen RedWing 12-27-08
(George Whitewolf's first wife),
Brain tumor, lung tumor, not looking too good.
Thank you for any prayers you can generate for her.
Bear Mountain are
praying for her.
Thanks again for prayers.
Helen RedWing. 12-09-08
Debi Pulido -
pain but she doing pretty good. She could not afford blood
thinner medicine so she is wearing hose and taking aspirin.
Pray for this good lady. ~Bear 11-30-08
- my stepmother - I just
learned tonight that she fell and broke her right
arm/shoulder in four places - needed surgery to replace and
pin the ball/shaft. Long recovery and some painful rehab is
expected. She is currently hospitalized with very limited
mobility, much pain. Much prayer needed for her full
recovery and her lifted spirits. My stepmother is a very
practical, hardworking woman of deep faith who is always
taking care of others - now she needs care and
Summer Moon 11-24-08
Pastor Frank Sayford - my father - will have surgery
to have a pacemaker/
defibrillator put in December for an enlarged heart, to
manage atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, also
with medication. He is in good spirits but has been in and
out of the hospital in recent months. Prayers are requested
for his recovery and health.
Summer Moon 11-24-08
loving and healing prayer request for
a friend to all, a humble and tireless woman dedicated to
the Red Road. She is a Sun Moon Dance Chief of many years.
She is always doing for others and is a fine example of
community leadership. Please encircle her with loving and
healing words to amplify healing power.
~Carol Perez Petersen 11-23-08
Linda & Joe Conners, Scottsdale, AZ
This wonderful couple worked
for many years.
it is time that they need your prayers. Please give them your
love and prayers. ~A little bird 11-11--08
Did you submit a prayer request above? If
so, please send us an update.
We are reluctant to remove anyone without knowing
if more prayers are needed.
my brother in law passed 5:00 PM December7th, 2008, He
has left behind his wife, my sister, Ella. He was the
stepfather of her children for many years. Services
will be in Leavenworth WA. Red Wing Helen Vinson
Foreman, 72, Redding, CA
Redding Rancheria's first tribal
chairman and a
pioneer in north state American Indian health clinics, died
Wednesday after a long illness. He was 72.
An Achumawi Pit
River Indian, Foreman was remembered Thursday by friends and
family as a tireless advocate for Indian rights, skilled
communicator and loyal patriarch. He was born June 12, 1936,
in Lake County.
A veteran of the
U.S. Navy, he worked in construction as did his father, said
daughter Carla Maslin of Redding. In the late 1960s, he
began his campaign to get Indians health care in the north
state. His efforts paid off in 1971, with the opening of the
federally financed Shasta-Trinity-Siskiyou Rural Indian
Health Center in Anderson. "Bobby was a real devoted guy to
his tribe," said Everett Freeman, tribal chairman of the
Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians near Corning. "He almost
single-handedly got Indian health to where it is today."
Larry McClanahan, a Navajo Indian who moved to Cottonwood
from Arizona in 1972, said Foreman was one of the first
people he met in the north state. He and his family were
glad to receive clinic services. "He took me as I
was," McClanahan recalled. "He was a man that was concerned
for people." Rod Lindsay, a Shasta Lake city councilman who
works with the Office of Indian Education for the Anderson
Union High School District, also met Foreman through the
clinic. Lindsay said Foreman was a mentor for many, sharing
his knowledge of culture and history with the young.
Foreman also was instrumental in organizing the Redding
Rancheria Indian Health Clinic on Churn Creek Road and
served as director, later retiring as self-governance
coordinator for the rancheria, Maslin said. In 1985,
when the rancheria regained its tribal status, Foreman was
elected as its first chairman and subsequently served on the
tribal council. But in 2004, he and all his family
members were disenrolled after a bitter dispute over his
mother's maternal lineage. The struggle took a toll on
his health, Maslin said. Foreman suffered from heart and
kidney problems, she said. Leah Harper, a family friend of
more than 20 years who does native medicine work in Redding,
said she wanted to stand out in front of the Churn Creek
clinic with a "thank you" banner in Foreman's honor. "I
believe that Bob had the heart of the native people and he
wanted to make a difference for them," she said. "Bob was
loving and the children are loving and they work very hard."
In addition to Maslin, Foreman is survived by three
daughters and three sons, as well as 15 grandchildren and 14
great-grandchildren. Funeral services are pending. For her
part, Maslin is grateful her father last year was able to do
something he'd always wanted - to see the Grand Canyon. "He
actually got emotional just looking at it," she said. "He
was in awe of its beauty and couldn't believe the world had
such a beautiful place."
Ray Fadden -
November 14, left this world to
begin his journey along the stars back to the Creator's land, a place of
living light where we will be embraced by those who have gone on before. His
leaving means we will no longer have his counsel. His voice has been taken
from us, we must make it through this life without his wisdom or his words
of encouragement. He was, without doubt, one of the great human beings of
our history, a true onkwehonwe who fulfilled his duties with honour.
Tehanetorens adhered to the ancient Mohawk teaching which instructs us to
leave our camp, our home, this life better than when we found it. At
the 214th anniversary of the Treaty of Canandaigua the Haudenosaunee
gathered at the treaty site and renewed this contract and reminded ourselves
of how the actions of our ancestors have a profound effect on our lives
whether or not we elect to acknowledge this. I was asked to speak before the
assembly and strayed from the speech I had in mind to talk about
Tehanetorens and how he took our history, which had been suppressed for many
generations, and made it relevant. He gave our culture and traditions
power. He showed us we need not walk in shame and that a single, committed
man can forge a nation without becoming a politician. Tehanetorens was
of the Adirondacks in body and spirit. He left his Onchiota home to secure a
teaching degree in Fredonia, NY then took a job at Tuscarora. There he
met the wonderful leader Clinton Rickard, a person who taught him about the
greatness of our past. He came to Akwesasne at a time when our heritage was
in peril. We had a language and a special way of cultivating the lands and
waters among us but we did not have a longhouse as the traditional beliefs
were effectively banned if not by statute then by those who were afraid of
practices they deemed pagan. Tehanetorens was part of that very small
group which shook us awake when he helped build a longhouse and, after
relearning the ceremonies, began to openly celebrate what had once been
driven underground. As he recalled, the first ceremonies attracted
only a few Akwesasnorens - one man sang and two danced. Remember this
the next time Midwinter comes about and the longhouse is crowded almost to
the rafters. He did much more than this. He was the best teacher we have
ever had in any of our schools. Besides the standard subjects he brought
something else to the classroom, the power of pride. His students were
not beaten into silence, belittled into shame or ruthlessly purged of their
dignity. They looked backwards and began to uncover the amazing truth as to
who they were as Mohawks. Being Mohawk was good, a simple phrase at
odds with the texts and standard teachings of the day. From his classes at
the Mohawk School came those amazing charts showing the Native contributions
to the world, the majestic oratory of our past leaders, the genius of our
politics. His students learned about Cannesatego's call for the union of the
colonies. They discovered that democracy was invented were and not in class
restricted Europe. They found out that our ancestors were scientists,
engineers, astronomers. He formed the Akwesasne Counsellor's
Organization and took his students to every site of historical importance in
eastern North America. From Cherokee, North Carolina to the Atlantic shores
the Mohawk boys and girls took strength from what they saw and in turn
encouraged other Natives to cast off the shackles of propaganda and rise as
nations. Without Tehanetorens there would not have been a White Roots of
Peace, an Akwesasne Notes, CKON Radio, Indian Time, Freedom School or
Mohawk Nation Council of Chiefs. There would be no land claims, the
Mohawk Council of Akwesasne would still be the St. Regis Band Council.
Akwesasne as a place of power would not be, we would be calling
ourselves the "St. Regis Indians". The new scholarship across America
which is finally seeing us as were were, and are, would not have taken root
had not Tehanetorens given those self serving academics a good kick in their
intellectual rear ends. He inspired students from everywhere. And when
his time as a teacher ended at Akwesasne he did not fade into the background
but created a haven in Onchiota when he opened the Six Nations Museum over
50 years ago. That place is our mecca where we go to be renewed.
For those of us who heard Tehanetorens' words the power of what he said
cannot be forgotten or ignored. He was passionate, angry at times and
had the absolute right to call things as they were. Tehanetorens
deserves honours beyond counting yet he would never accept
tribute while he was with us. I am at a loss as to the right way to
pay him the homage he merits. But I will state this: he was the best
human being I ever met. 11-18-08 Doug George-Kanentiio
Wanda L. Candler, (TN)
74, Stopped her battle with kidney failure and pancreatic
cancer on Oct. 25th 2008. She spent the last 13 years longing to be free of
all the earthly illnesses and fly with my Father. Her prayers were answered
and we miss her but take great comfort in knowing she suffers no more.
Sandra Babblingbrook Reynolds, 11-11-08
In Memory of Bill Prezwoznik
was one of the four founders
of Manataka. His
wisdom and love guided
Manataka through its infancy
and his words and unselfish
deeds are often recalled.
In Memory of
Harney Spiritual Leader of the Western Shoshone Nation who
dedicated his life to fighting the nuclear testing and dumping. He loved
and cared for his family, friends and all creation.
In Memory of Granny Messenger
She had over
a 1,000 grandchildren but never
bore a child. Her memory will live with us
forever. Veronica Messenger was a great woman. Anonymous Contributor
In Memory of
Webster’s definition of a Martyr: 1: A person who voluntarily
suffers death as the penalty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a belief.
2: A person who sacrifices something of great value, especially life itself for
the sake of principle. Lance, we are all better because you walked this
world, we will all become better because you look back with eyes from the angels
world. Thank You. The Selvidge Family. Little River Rock.
In Memory of Ruby Gilliham
always remember this gracious and beautiful woman in our hearts. She will
remain a part of Manataka forever. (picture:
Members of the Kootenai-Salish Tribe
assist with her funeral. Greg Gilliham, Little
ELDER COUNCIL MEETING
The Elder Council meeting was postponed until January 20 due to conflicting
Any member who
wishes to appear before the Elder Council is invited to write
email@example.com or call
501-627-055 to be placed on the agenda.
Council - Becky Flaming Owl Moore, chair.
(Native American Grave Preservation and Repatriation Act) - Blue Star Speaks,
Communications - Lee
Relations - Linda VanBibber,
Education - Robert
Gray Hawk Coke, chair.
Details of the Elder Council meetings are presented to the general membership
following the meeting.
FOOD BASKETS NEEDED NOW!
people are hungry often throughout the year. Please bring
or send non-perishable food items. Gift cards for food from Walmart, Safeway and
other stores are great.
NOTICE 2: REGULAR MEMBERSHIP
1:00 p.m., 3rd Sunday each month at Gulpha Gorge. In
case of inclement weather (rain, sleet, snow, below 40 degrees) we meet
Ryan's Restaurant located at 4538 Central Avenue across from Hot Springs
Gatherings are normally held on the 3rd weekend of June (closest to the Summer
Solstice) and the 3rd weekend of October (closest to the Winter Solstice).
The date of the Spring Encampment varies from year to year.
NOTICE 3: WOMEN’S COUNCIL MEETINGS -
11:30 a.m., 1st Saturday each month. Contact:
PAID YOUR DUES?
Now is a good time to support the many programs, services and events of MAIC.
We can always use a donation. Pay by check or credit card online. It's easy,
secure and fast!
Or send to: MAIC, PO Box 476, Hot Springs, AR 71902
MATERIAL DONATIONS NEEDED BY
1. 30 gallon plastic storage boxes
LAND - Donate land to be used as financing leverage for to build
a cultural center. Any size/location is acceptable. Tax benefits may apply.
MEMORIAL GIFTS - When a friend or relative passes, honor their memory and
send a tax deductible contribution to MAIC and we will send the family
a beautiful letter and memorial certificate in your name.
Memorial ceremonies are given several times a year on the sacred mountain.
YOU TO EVERYONE WHO DONATED
STAMPS, PAPER AND OTHER SUPPLIES!
TO UNSUBSCRIBE: Simply click the reply button,
type 'Unsubscribe' in the subject line and send.
Manataka American Indian Council
PO Box 476
Hot Springs, AR 71902-0476
Lee Standing Bear Moore
Jennifer Attaway, Alabama
Sheri Awi Anida Waya Burnett,
Robert King Coke - Grey Hawk, Texas
Bonnie Two Owl Feathers Delcourt, New Hampshire
Maxine Elisi Swan Dancer Fulgham
Crystal Harvey, Arkansas
Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman, Illinois
John James, Missouri
Bennie LeBeau, Wyoming
Julie Maltagliati, Florida
Carol Perez Petersen, California
Bobby Joe Runninbear, Tennessee
RedWing and Gray Beard Vinson,
Osceola Birdman Waters, Australia
Waynonaha Two Worlds, New York
Linda VanBibber, Missouri
Liora Leah Zack, California
Blue Panther Keeper of Stories
David Cornsilk, Oklahoma
Andrea Crambit, California
Harvey Walks With Hawks Doyle, Jr.,
Romaine Garcia, Colorado
Dr. Donald A. Grinde, Jr.
Valerie Eagle Heart
Dr. Bruce E. Johansen
Mark and Carla Maslin, New Mexico
Dr. Joseph Mercola
Organic Consumers Association
Elvina Jean Paulson
Corina Roberts, California
Union of Concerned Scientists
Qwina H. and Irma West, Piaute
GO TO PAGE 1
GO TO PAGE 2
GO TO PAGE 3
SMOKE SIGNAL NEWS ARCHIVES
and Copyright Information
Material appearing here is distributed without profit or
gain to those who have expressed an interest in viewing the
material for research and educational purposes.
This is in accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. section 107.
Reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright
American Indian Council. The word "Manataka"
is a registered trademark exclusively owned by the Manataka
American Indian Council. Use of this
trademark without the expressed written permission of MAIC is
prohibited and violators will be prosecuted. 15 U.S.C. Section
1051(a), (b). The Smoke Signal News is copyrighted in its
entirety and no reproduction, republishing, copying, or
distribution is permitted without the expressed written
permission of MAIC is strictly prohibited and violations will be
EMAIL HOME INDEX TRADING