Manataka American Indian Council                      Volume XI  Issue 11 NOVEMBER 2007


SMOKE SIGNAL NEWS

Manataka - Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow 

 

 

PAGE 3

 

Faster download!  The Smoke Signal this month is on 3 web pages.

 

 


 

Contents:              

Hill & Holler: Dis-Enrolling For Dollars
History: The Year of the Hangman:

Grandfather Hawk Speaks:

How Do You Want To Be Remembered?
Feature Story: Red Elk's version of Deganawidah
Elder's Meditations:
Women's Council: Circle of Friends
Women's Circle:

Ghost Woman and Heavy Collar of the Bloods

Diet Watch: The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide
Book Reviews: Voice of the Hawk Elder
Poetry Circle: Ghost dancers
Inspirational Thought:: Promise Yourself
Healing Prayer Basket: Vernon Bellecourt Passes
Manataka  Business: Short Meeting at Gathering

 

 


         

HILL & HOLLER COLUMN

By Susan Bates

News and Notes From Indian Country


Dis-Enrolling For Dollars
 

A new phenomena is happening in Indian Country today. Tribal members are being kicked out of their BIA recognized tribes without warning by entrenched tribal councils. The reason? The white man's sickness - Greed. The cause? Gambling. Huge casino profits are seducing more and more Indian People to turn on their own relatives to reduce the number of tribal members who get a share of the American Pie.

I"'m not talking about tribal members who've only been enrolled the past 20 years or so. I"m talking about people whose full - blooded ancestors have been a part of their Nation for many generations.

Among the disenrolled Oneida is Danielle Schenandoah Patterson, sister of singer Joanne Schenandoah, who had her trailer home bulldozed while she was forcibly restrained and threatened with being sent to prison. Their sister Vickie's Uncle's home was also demolished while he lay in a hospital bed suffering from a stroke.

Many other Nations, tribes and bands have also been ethnically cleansed including the Western Shoshone, Pechanga, Sauk Suittle, Las Vegas Paiutes, Redding Rancheria, Isletta Pueblo, Narragansett, Coushatta and Cherokee.

Hiding under the "cloak of sovereignty" tribal councils ignore their People's cry for justice and do what they must to rid themselves of unwanted members, thus upping the per capita payments to remaining members. Many times these unwanted families are traditionals who have retained the values of the old ones.

Disenrollment means an end to tribal checks and medical benefits. People who have always lived on a piece of land find themselves homeless and jobless. Where do they go? What do they do?

Sadly, traitors are nothing new to Indians. They have always been around, waiting in the shadows to do their cowardly deeds.  White People didn't know or care who was in charge of tribal land or decision making. Many of our own People have sold out their families by signing away lands without authority.

When Chief Attakullakulla traded Cherokee lands for a cabin filled with trinkets and beads, his son, Dragging Canoe, took his warriors and vowed to hold his land. And hold it he did for another 20 years. Later, when Major Ridge, John Ridge, Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie signed the Treaty of New Echota which sealed the death march of the Cherokees, the angry Cherokee People invoked the "Blood Law" and murdered Major Ridge who was the author of the law, along with John Ridge and Elias Boudinot. Stand Watie alone escaped.

And lest you think the Cherokees were the only People to have traitors, think again. They are found in every tribe. Sitting Bull, the revered leader and Holy Man of the Dakota Sioux, was murdered by his own People. He could not understand the white man's greed and was saddened by all the homeless hungry people he saw in the cities often giving away his money to those in need.

Personal wealth was not an Indian concept. If fact, People who desired more than his brothers and sisters had were looked down upon. Goods and services were shared freely with all.

But now the flesh of the Apple is bruised and the core is beginning to rot. No matter how much Native Blood a person carries in his veins, if he doesn't remember the Sacred Principles that Creator gave his People, then he is no longer Indian, only one who used to be.

There is a Judgment Day coming. Soon each of us will get an opportunity to stand before the Great Warriors who have gone before. What will they have to say to you? What will you have to say to them? There isn't much time left. Pray for the People.
 

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For more information about tribal cleansing go to http://www.TribalCorruption.com

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Susan Bates

susanbates@webtv.net

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HISTORY.... 

 

 

A Book Review by Doug George-Kanentiio
 
 
The Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois
By Glenn F. Williams
 
Anyone familiar with the American Revolution knows that the Iroquois were  vital players in that war.   Its fighters were the best trained, most physically fit of any soldiers in North America.   They were highly trained, disciplined and skilled marksmen capable of amazing feats of physical endurance.   In close quarters they were without equal, capable of wielding tomahawk, knife and war club with devastating effectiveness.   The Iroquois were expert woodsmen, at ease on the vast forest of the Northeast.   They were trained to ignore hunger and pain.   They were masters of camouflage and ambush.   Although their numbers were but a few thousand they were able to compensate for this by the judicial use of selective terror.   Their war cries caused great fear in their opponents who were driven into a state of confusion and apprehension when they realized the Iroquois were preparing to strike.
 
These skills were critical as the Iroquois prepared to defend their homelands  against the settlers.   Twelve years prior to the outbreak of the Revolution  in 1775 the Confederacy had secured from Britain a royal proclamation which  outlawed intrusions by the colonies onto Native lands while setting in place formal procedures by which Indian nations could sell territory, an act which had
to be endorsed by the British government.
 
Upset that their territorial claims were being denied by the Crown the leaders of the colonies, most of whom were active land speculators, ignored the new laws and encouraged settlers to move westwards.  The Iroquois were placed in a precarious situation since they were expected to organize resistance to this activity.   On the eve of warfare the Confederacy made two treaties with the colonies which were supposed to guarantee its neutrality.   The Confederate leaders realized their involvement would tear them apart as their was considerable sympathy among the Oneidas and Tuscaroras for the rebels.
 
Not until 1777 did the Iroquois as a group take up arms and then only to beat back what they saw was an illegal military venture into their territory by  the Americans. At the Battle of Oriskany a force of Senecas and Mohawks almost  succeeded in annihilating a company of American soldiers sent into the western Mohawk Valley to relieve the garrison at Ft. Stanwix.   With minimal support  from their British allies the Iroquois set an ambush alongside of Oriskany Creek. When the fighting ended some hours later over 500 Americans were dead including a number of Oneida scouts.
 
After Oriskany the Iroquois turned their attention to the frontier settlements in New York State and Pennsylvania, destroying hundreds of farms, burning thousands of acres of crops and killing many hundreds of settlers.   An Iroquois force defeated the Americans at Wyoming Valley in eastern Pennsylvania and  wiped out a New York militia at Minisink in the Cherry Valley.
 
The Iroquois were also active in Ohio organizing resistance through its  alliance network with other Native nations.   The American rebels has serious cause  for alarm.   They realized that if the British were to be defeated they had  to either neutralize the Iroquois or secure its support.   Despite having a few small contingents of Oneidas and Tuscaroras the majority of the Iroquois felt  compelled to oppose what they saw as the most immediate threat to their  homes: the land hungry American colonies.
 
So bitter were the divisions among the colonists, as well as within the Iroquois Confederacy, that acts of terror, such as > the hanging of opponents, was commonplace, hence the name of the book.  

US General Washington was well aware of the effectiveness of Iroquois military strategy.   He knew the rebellious colonies could not sustain repeated attacks on those regions which provided his army
with much of its provisions.   He was also apprehensive about the British launching new invasions which, unlike Oriskany or Saratoga, would have the bulk of the Iroquois fighting forces becoming   actively engaged.   The decision to send General John Sullivan into Iroquois territory was a preemptive attack meant to break the back of the Six  Nations and deprive the British of their most
effective allies.
 
General Sullivan's expedition against the Iroquois was the largest and most significant US military venture of 1779. 
 

Consisting of over 3,500 troops the expedition was instructed by Washington to "lay waste all settlements around...so that country may not only be overrun but destroyed."   Sullivan complied in a campaign similar to the invasions of Union generals Sherman and Sheridan against the South 85 years later. Scorched earth, like the US tactics in Vietnam, was believed to be the only means to defeat a guerilla army.
 
Sullivan succeeded in defeating the Iroquois at the Battle of Newtown, the  only pitched fight of his invasion. He torched over 40 Iroquois communities and  destroyed thousands of acres of crops. His casualties were minimal but he  failed to launch an attack at Ft. Niagara, a major center of operation for both Iroquois and British forces in the Northeast.   The winter of 1779-80 was among the most severe in memory during that time. Deprived of food and shelter hundreds of Iroquois died of starvation and exposure.   But their determination to carry the fight to the Americans was not lessened.   The next year the Iroquois attacked the frontier with passion and without mercy.
 
But in the end, the British will to continue the war was broken. After their defeat at Yorktown the British gradually diminished their support for military operations including reduced aide to the Iroquois.  The 1783 Treaty of Paris between the US and Britain brought hostilities to a close but neglected to offer any protection to the Iroquois. Veterans of the Sullivan's army were eager to snatch up vast tracts of Iroquois territory, a hunger which the Confederacy could not stop. Within the generation of "The Year of the Hangman" the Iroquois were confined to small reservations, beset by alcohol and fragmented beyond repair.
 
Williams' book fills many gaps in our understanding of this vital element of American history. He writes with precision as he explains in remarkable detail  about the events which led to the Sullivan Expedition as well as the tactics  and strategy used by the Iroquois throughout the war.  

 

He has a keen appreciation for the fighting abilities of the Iroquois and their skills as politicians. Williams understands the extremely difficult position the Iroquois were in at the outbreak of the Revolution and how the immense pressures brought to bear upon the Confederacy as both American and British agents sought to enlist the Iroquois in their respective military ventures.
 
Williams writes with skill and sensitivity.   He has produced a book which is a perfect compliment to Barbara Graymont's "The Iroquois in the American Revolution". "Year of the Hangman" is detailed,
comprehensive and well written. 

 
It is an exceptional book. As an Akwesasne Mohawk whose ancestors were heavily involved in the War I applaud Glenn Williams for this welcome contribution to our history.
 

Doug George-Kanentiio, Akwesasne Mohawk, is a co-founder of the Native American Journalists Association, a former member of the Board of Trustees for the National Museum of the American Indian and the editor of the news journal Akwesasne Notes. He is a columnist for News From Indian Country.   Kanentiio@aol.com.
 

 


 
  • Publisher: Westholme Publishing
  • Pub. Date: June 2005

 

Hard cover Price:  $29.50

 

Soft cover Price:   $22.95

 


 


 

 

 

THE HAWK SPEAKS

 

How Do You Want To Be Remembered?

 

Our time here on Mother Earth has proved to be short. As we grow older it is good to remember the things we either accomplished or neglected to do. The question, How do you want to be remembered is one that we all should ask ourselves.

 

To older readers, have you accomplished anything during your lifetime that others will remember you by, or have you just done what was necessary to survive?

 

In these modern days we live in, it is hard to get by with all the violence and hardships together with disorder in all parts of the world.

 

I remember my mother asking me one day how I liked school. I told her, "I really like school mother but the teacher is always asking questions."  It was then that I learned that this is one way teachers find out what is important to us.  It was not the little red wagon or the used bicycle I had received, I was being taught to appreciate these gifts that was most important.

 

As I continued to grow I received the gifts of 'Wisdom and Knowledge; Without these gifts we could go through life without having respect for anyone or anything. My dear grandfather took the time to teach me many things such as hunting, fishing, tracking animals and reading signs and having respect for the earth and the animals. The tracking and reading signs came in handy during my 40 year career as a law enforcement officer.  I was able to track and arrest several escapees from jail and track down a wolf that had escaped from the local zoo. Fishing and hunting were a necessity in order to help feed my poor family of 10 children.

 

I did not care for school and had a hard time learning from books but when I was taught by my grandfather, these things stuck in my mind and I still remember them clearly. I will always remember my grandfather, he was a rough and tumble type of man who wore patched up old bib overalls. He chewed tobacco and he had the tobacco juice all over the front of his shirt most of the time. He had one gold tooth that would just shine as brightly as the sun when he laughed. His face was cracked and worn like an old piece of leather but was as soft as a baby's behind. My grandfather will live on in my memory for as long as I live because of the things he did and said.

 

I have tried my best to do something that I can be remembered by during my short life here on Mother Earth. "How Do You Want To Be Remembered?   A'ho

 

Hawk With Seven Eyes

 

Daniel Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman is a founding member of the Taylorville Black Horse Powwow, Inc,' a nonprofit 501(c)(3) charitable and educational organization. He has given presentations at schools in Central Illinois area on the history, culture and religious beliefs of the Native American people for over 27 years. Hawk and members of his group present dance demonstrations for children who along with their teachers are invited to dance.  Hawk believes children are the future.  

 


 

 

BENNIE LeBEAU

Bennie E. "Blue Thunder" LeBeau Sr., an enrolled member of the Eastern Shoshone Nation, Wind River Indian Reservation, Ft. Washakie, Wyoming is a MAIC Newsletter Correspondent.  His "Teton Rainbow" and Earth Wisdom columns are regular features on these pages.  Blue Thunder, Teacher from among the Eastern Shoshone people.

 

 


 

FEATURE...

 

Red Elk's version of Deganawidah

 

There once came from the North Country, to what is now the upper western portion of New York State, a young man of Huron birth. He was called Deganaweda. Even as a child he talked of a peaceful way of existence and of harmony among the tribes. He spoke of the importance of the heart and called for an end to war- like ways and sacrifices of blood. But he found only deaf ears amongst his own Huron people, for they were war-like and not given to the ways of peace.

 

Our story begins when Deganaweda began a pilgrimage that would eventually bring his teachings to the five tribes of the Haudenosaunee and later, six when they were joined by the Seneca peoples. He helped them create a confederation of tribes, under a form of self-ruling government, in which there would be no royalty, no tyranny, no need for war. This unification of the tribes would later be referred to as the Great Iroquois Confederacy. Which would include the Mohawk, Onandaga, Tuscarora, Cayuga and Oneida people, who would later be joined by the Seneca and the Mohican.

 

The Mohicans would later be all but wiped out by the Huron’s, leaving the Confederacy composed of six nations as it is described in our history books. In the confederacy Daganaweda's words were welcomed with enthusiasm and discussed around the council fires of the elders. During his pilgrimage Deganaweda met Hiawatha. Hiawatha, it is said, lived as a hermit deep within the forest. He lived alone, holding a great bitterness in his heart. He grieved over the slaughter of his family by the bloodthirsty Onadaga chief.

 

It is said that Hiawatha had even taken to cannibalism. Deganaweda was challenged by a Grandmother to share his teachings with Hiawatha. She told him that if he could convince the angry Hiawatha, the beast of the woods, to walk in peace and harmony, then perhaps there was something to this wisdom. If he succeeded in changing the heart of this beast, then all the tribes would surely listen to him.

 

READ MORE...

 

 


FUNNY BONES

No offense intended for any individuals or tribes.

 

 

A Navajo boy and his father were visiting a mall for the first time.   They were amazed by almost everything they saw, but especially by two shiny, silver walls that could move apart and then slide back together again. 

The boy asked, "What is this, Father?" 

The father (never having seen an elevator) responded, "Son, I have never seen anything like this in my life, I don't know what it is." 

While the boy and his father were watching with amazement, a fat old lady in a wheel chair rolled up to the moving walls and pressed a button. 

The walls opened and the lady rolled between them into a small room. The walls closed and the boy and his father watched the small circular numbers above the walls light up sequentially. 

They continued to watch until it reached the last number and then the numbers began to light in the reverse order. Finally the walls opened up again and a gorgeous, voluptuous, young woman stepped out. 

The father, not taking his eyes off the young woman, said quietly to his son... "Nima bikaa ni dil yaad! (Go get your mother!)"
 


 

ELDER'S MEDITATION

 

Indians chase the vision, white men chase the dollar." -John (Fire) Lame Deer

Rosebud Lakota 

 

Since the beginning of time, Indian people have been blessed with the ability and knowledge of the vision. The vision determines our future. The concept is, we move toward and

become that which we think about. We have known that all visions are about the Great Spirit. They should include God's will in every area of our lives. We should have visions about our people, about healthy relationships, about helping others, about being happy, about being educated. Each day we should renew our vision. We should ask the Creator to give us a vision of what he wants us to be and where he wants us to go in our lives. We should be the seekers of vision.

 
Great Spirit,
give me a vision to follow today.
Let me do Your will.
 

By Don Coyhis


 

WOMEN'S COUNCIL

YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED TO JOIN

THE MANATAKA WOMEN'S COUNCIL

'CIRCLE OF FRIENDS'

 

Wow!  The Women's Council has been busy this past month. 

  • A trip to Tahlequah, OK to attend a convention of flute players treated our members to an exciting event where they learned new techniques, met some beautiful people and just had fun.  Some took a side trip to tour the Cherokee Heritage Center and Museum.

  • Many members participated with several hundred people attending a Healing Retreat at Gulpha Gorge Campgrounds.  The Women performed beautifully! Manataka's Drum Circle won many praises and a new members too!

  • Members participated in a Blessing of the Land Ceremony at the Miller's.

  • The All-female Manataka Drum Circle had several practice sessions and welcomed a few new members.

The Manataka Women's Council 'Circle of Friends'; meets the first Saturday of each month at 11:30 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. Coffee is provided, food and other soft beverages are brought by individuals to share. Please remember to bring your drums or other musical instruments to meetings.

 

Regular Membership Meetings - Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR

November 3

Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
December 1 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
January 5 To Be Announced
February 2 To Be Announced
March 1 To Be Announced
   

 

(When meetings are held at Gulpha Gorge please bring a lawn chair, something to drink, and a snack to share.)  Meeting are held at various locations during bad weather -

 

The Manataka Drum Society is growing with more singers joining.  Weekly practice sessions is where new songs, food and laughter are enjoyed by everyone.  Contact: Amanda Morningstar at: Amandamorninstar@manataka.org

 

Donations of nonperishable food items, toiletries, and bio-friendly cleaning supplies will be accepted and are greatly appreciated. Requests for assistance are year-round.  Please send or bring.

 

Please direct any questions our comments to Becky 'Flaming Owl Peacekeeper' Moore at manataka@sbcglobal.net

 

Join Us!

 


 

WOMEN'S CIRCLE

 

 

The Ghost Woman and Heavy Collar of the Bloods
By Longtrail

 

Near the Old Man’s River set the Blood People’s camp

On the prairies where the winds always blow
Heavy Collar and several braves of his people scouted round

Traveling in coulees they preferred to stay low.
 

On one of their scoutings, several buffalo were sighted

Heavy Collar, separated from his men, took a bull. 

As night drew near, he struck a fire, roasted tongue

And feasted until he his stomach felt quite full.
 

He crept amongst bunches of long rye- grass

To wait for the morning sun and hide Not aware of the pile of bones resting there
That lay, coldly in the dark by his side.
 

In the moments between darkness and dawn
When surroundings dimly take on their form
His face turned to meet the skull’s greeting smile
Of a woman who’d been killed there before.
 

He knew then why all the previous night
He awoke nearly every hour
He arose and walked away and left the cold bones
Left their haunting and magical power.
 

During the next long day’s journey
To the Belly River by a way of a stream
He kept thinking of the bones on the ground
At the place he had last seen his dreams.
 

As darkness came upon the land that night
Legs weary from his treck all day
He crossed over onto an island he’d found
Where trees had floated to and lay.
 

In a fork of a tree he struck up a fire
And turned his back to it to be warmed
Not able to clear the bones from his head
In his mind they seemed to take form.
 

The familiar sound of a lodge being dragged
Across the dry and rocky ground
Was coming closer to him from behind him somewhere
In his heart he feared to look ‘round.
 

Afraid to see what he felt there would be
Afraid to know what was making the sound
Afraid to confront the unknown thing
Dragging towards him across the dry ground.
 

To his ears came the whistle of a simple drum song
And before him on the log whitely shone
A skeleton there sitting, put together complete
From the woman’s slumbering, cold bones.
 

Wrapped ‘round her neck was a lodge cover’s rope
From her head smoke flaps extended left and right
Behind her trailed the lodge cover’s form
Fading dimly into the darkness of night.
 

She sat there on the cottonwood log
Swinging her legs to her whistling tune
Her bones glowing bright from the fire’s burning light
And the light of the shining, full moon.
 

When Heavy Collar saw her skeleton there
He felt his brave heart melt away
In fear and desperation he spoke to her saying
"Oh ghost. please quickly from me go away"!
 

"Oh Ghost please won’t you go from my sight
I’m tired and in much need of rest."
The ghost swung her legs in morbid delight
At being his uninvited guest.
 

In fright, Heavy Collar reached for his rifle and shot
The skeleton screamed and fell from his sight
His confidence restored and relived of the fear
He thought he had killed her that night.
 

"You dog, You killed me"! she screamed
I will follow you all of your life
Until you too are cold bones and lay dead on the ground
There is no place that you can hide.
 

Heavy Collar sprang to his feet then
And swiftly fled into the night
Her ghostly words screamed in his head as he ran
"My death threats will soon be made right"!
 

It mattered not how far he ran
For when he’d catch his breath and rest
"Oh Heavy Collar!" he would hear through the night
And off he would run again fast.
 

His friends awaited their Chief’s return
Waiting atop the Belly River buttes
In the distance he was sighted coming towards camp
In the distance they saw there were two.
 

"From the distance comes our Chief"! they said
"He brings someone with him today.
It’s a woman traveling with him we see.
From him we shall steal her away!"
 

They guessed he had captured her somewhere
Another woman for the cold prairie nights
They joked as the two came closer to them
Came clearer into their sight.
 

Between the travelers and the men watching
A coulee north and south deeply ran
Into the coulee went their chief and the woman
And out of the coulee came only a man.
 

When he arrived in camp they laughed
"Where is your woman companion?" they said
"I do not know who you speak of" said he
And in confusion he shook his tired head
 

"We saw the woman walking with you
You have hidden her in the ravine
You were afraid to bring her to camp today
Afraid that she would be seen!"
 

"I think you are all crazy
You have not seen what you have said!"
Then with a heavy heart he remembered
What the bones of the Ghost Woman said.
 

"Where ever you hide I will find you
Because of you I am dead once again
When ever you think you’ve alluded me
My song of death I will send!".
 

He then told the men his story
Of the night he spent on the ground
Laying near the cold bones that had chased him
Of the dragging, frightening sound.
 

Of the drum song she whistled to him
Of the things that she had said
The way her presence kept him from resting
And of the rattling sounds in his head.
 

"Tell us our Chief, why do you lie to us?
We know she waits in the ravine.
We will go down there and bring her here
We know what we have seen.
 

Together they walked to the coulee below
And there the soft dirt did prove
One set of tracks going in and one coming out
Their Chief had been telling the truth.
 

They returned to their camp, there were feasts being held
The moon was shinning so bright
When inside the Chief’s head, the Ghost Woman said
"You will die by my hand tonight!"
 

Out of some pines there came a great bear
It stood in the light of the moon
The Chief searched for a rock to throw at the beast
But for a weapon found only a bone.
 

Injured, the bear came towards him and said
"Heavy Collar you have already killed me once
Now you’ve hit me and hurt me and so you will die
Tonight you will be the meat of my hunt!"
 

He knew it was her by the words that she spoke
To his lodge he turned and he ran.
"My People, the ghost bear is here, come and hide in my lodge
We will fight her off if we can!"
 

All the people in camp squeezed into his lodge
All his people, the young and the old.
The wind from the west carried smoke out the top
And the bear move the lodge’s smoke- flap poles.
 

Huddled inside much afraid of the ghost woman bear
They all could hear her say,
"I will kill all you dogs! You dogs cowering inside
None of you will live until day!"
 

"I will smoke you to death, I have moved the poles
I have closed your lodge up tight
The smoke will come down and kill all you dogs
Death’s revenge will become mine tonight!"
 

The lodge soon filled with choking, black smoke
Women and children soon started to cry
They all needed clean air but the ghost woman bear
Patiently waited to kill them outside.
 

Heavy Collar’s old mother, a good woman was she
Knew something had to be done
"Have pity ghost bear! Go away from us here!"
She pleaded for her people and son.
 

"No old woman I will not listen to you
All of you must suffer together and die!"
It is because of your chief that I’m here under the moon
And the death of you all draws nigh!"
 

The old woman opened her medicine bundle
Which held powers that were only hers
She painted her face to bring inner strength
Lit her pipe and said her death prayer.
 

"Ghost take pity on us choking in here
Accept the smoke from my pipe and go away
You were not asked here into our camp this night
Let us live to dance another bright day!"
 

" I can not reach your pipe old woman
Come out and bring it to my side
Do not continue choking in there old woman
Bring your pipe into the clear moonlight."
 

To save her people the old woman went
Out of the smoky lodge that night
She confronted there the ghost of the woman
The bear standing in it’s towering height.
 

The ghost began to back away
The old woman could not help but go
In fright she called to her people inside
"Please save me from this bear woman ghost!"
 

Heavy Collar rushed out of the lodge for her
He beckoned his people to follow
With their arms joined and their hands held tight
They held the old woman quite solid.
 

Suddenly the old woman let loose of her hold
The chief’s mother lay on the ground, life gone
Along with her in death went the ghost woman bear
And the haunting of the ghost woman’s song.

 

 

Submitted by Carol Spirit Dove Henderson

 


 

DIET & HEALTH WATCH

 

 

The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide

By Dr. David G. Williams

 

When it comes to hydrogen peroxide therapy there seems to be only two points of view. Supporters consider it one of the greatest healing miracles of all time. Those opposed feel its ingestion is exceptionally dangerous, and only the foolhardy could think of engaging in such behavior. Before either condemning or endorsing hydrogen peroxide, let's take a real close look at what we're dealing with.

If any substance is interesting, it's hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide should really be called hydrogen dioxide. Its chemical formula is H2O2. It contains one more atom of oxygen that does water (H20). By now everyone's aware of the ozone layer that surrounds the earth. Ozone consists of three atoms of oxygen (03). This protective layer of ozone is created when ultraviolet light from the sun splits an atmospheric oxygen molecule (02) into two single, unstable oxygen atoms. These single molecules combine with others to form ozone (03). Ozone isn't very stable. In fact, it will quickly give up that extra atom of oxygen to falling rainwater to form hydrogen peroxide (H202). (Bear with me: all this chemistry mumbo jumbo I'm going through actually will help you understand the importance of hydrogen peroxide.)

 

The following is only a partial listing of conditions in which H202 therapy has been used successfully. (Many of these conditions are serious, if not life-threatening. As always, I would highly recommend seeking the advice and guidance of a doctor experienced in the use of these techniques.)

 

Allergies Headaches

Altitude Sickness

Anemia

Alzheimer's

Arrhythmia

Asthma

Bacterial Infections

Bronchitis

Cancer

Candida

Cardiovascular Disease

Cerebral Vascular Disease

Chronic Pain

Diabetes Type II

Diabetic Gangrene

Diabetic Retinopahty

Digestion Problems

Epstein-Barr Infection

Emphysema

Food Allergies

Fungal Infections

Gingivitis

Herpes Simplex

Herpes Zoster

HIV Infection

Influenza

Insect Bites

Liver Cirrhosis

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BOOK REVIEW:

 

Manataka Recommended Reading

 

 

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

Charles Mann

Knopf Publishing Group

Hardcover, 480pp  $26.95 + s/h

 

"In the last 20 years, archaeologists and anthropologists equipped with new scientific techniques have made far-reaching discoveries about the Americas. For example, Indians did not cross the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago, as most of us learned in school. They were already here. Their numbers were vast, not few. And instead of living lightly on the land, they managed it beautifully and left behind an enormous ecological legacy. In this riveting, accessible work of science, Charles Mann takes us on an journey of scientific exploration. We learn that the Indian development of modern corn was one of the most complex feats of genetic engineering ever performed. That the Great Plains are a third smaller today than they were in 1700 because the Indians who maintained them by burning died. And that the Amazon rain forest may be largely a human artifact. Compelling and eye-opening, this work will vastly alter our understanding of our history and lands."  By Peter Johnson.

 

A groundbreaking study that radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans in 1492.

Traditionally, Americans learned in school that the ancestors of the people who inhabited the Western Hemisphere at the time of Columbus's landing had crossed the Bering Strait twelve thousand years ago; existed mainly in small, nomadic bands; and lived so lightly on the land that the Americas was, for all practical purposes, still a vast wilderness. But as Charles C. Mann now makes clear, archaeologists and anthropologists have spent the last thirty years proving these and many other long-held assumptions wrong.

In a book that startles and persuades, Mann reveals how a new generation of researchers equipped with novel scientific techniques came to previously unheard-of conclusions. Among them:

• In 1491 there were probably more people living in the Americas than in Europe.
• Certain cities- such as Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital- were far greater in population than any contemporary European city. Furthermore, Tenochtitlán, unlike any capital in Europe at that time, had running water, beautiful botanical gardens, and immaculately clean streets.
• The earliest cities in the Western Hemisphere were thriving before the Egyptians built the great pyramids.
• Pre-Columbian Indians in Mexico developed corn by a breeding process so sophisticated that the journal Science recently described it as "man's first, and perhaps the greatest, feat of genetic engineering."
• Amazonian Indians learned how to farm the rain forest without destroying it- a process scientists are studying today in thehope of regaining this lost knowledge.
• Native Americans transformed their land so completely that Europeans arrived in a hemisphere already massively "landscaped" by human beings.

Mann sheds clarifying light on the methods used to arrive at these new visions of the pre-Columbian Americas and how they have affected our understanding of our history and our thinking about the environment. His book is an exciting and learned account of scientific inquiry and revelation. 

BUY NOW!

List Price: $32.95 + s/h

Sale Price: $25.95

 

 


 

BOOK REVIEW

 

 

CP560 - ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NATIVE AMERICAN HEALING by William S. Lyon
Huge Resource. This monumental volume explores, explains, and honors the healing practices of Native Americans throughout North America, from the southwestern U.S. to the Arctic. Designed for ease of use with maps, a detailed subject index, extensive bibliography, and cross references, this book is sure to fascinate anyone interested in Native American culture and heritage. Illustrations, maps. Paperback: 373 pages; 88" x 10.26" x 7.28" 
ON SALE! Was $33.95  Now only $23.95 + s/h

 

This monumental volume explores, explains, and honors the shamanic healing practices of Native Americans throughout North America. From the Southwestern United States to the Arctic Circle.

Healing traditions in Native American cultures offer a glimpse into a rich and varied world of belief systems and spiritual practices. Covering over 350 years of history. More than 1200 entries in this book introduce readers to renowned Native American healers and to the societies and divisions into which healers were categorized. It describes sacred objects used in healing rituals and how such objects were used, as well as plants used to increase healing powers. Types of healing ceremonies are vividly pictured, and the symbolic motifs used in healing rituals are explained along with the major concepts that formed the many diverse Native American healing traditions. Major scholars of native american healing are introduced, complete with firsthand accounts of their experiences. Entries include:

Helika, the form of supernatural power used by Kwakiutl Shamans for curing. Naitulgai, the Wailaki dream doctors who cured by singing healing songs shown to them in dreams. Aenichit, a powerful Clayoquot Shaman who healed the sick and was known to lift liquid water out of a bucket as though it were frozen.

Designed as an easy to use, comprehensive synthesis of centuries of study, with maps, a detailed subject index, an extensive bibliography, and cross-references, this book will fascinate anyone interested in Native American culture and heritage.

William S. Lyon is a professor of anthropology at the Center for Religious Studies at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, and the author of Black Elk: The Sacred Ways of a Lakota.
 

BUY NOW!

ON SALE! Was $33.95 

Now only $23.95 + s/h

 

 

Voice of the Hawk Elder

by Edna Gordon, edited by Harvey Arden

 

"This book is dedicated to my People, the Seneca Nation, to our kindred Peoples of the Haudenoshaunee, or Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy, to all the Indian Nations of Great Turtle Island, and to  all other Indigenous Peoples around this Mother Earth.  I send it out like an arrow of love from my heart to YOUR hearts!

 

If  other folks want to read it too, why, that’s fine by me. Might be you even learn something! This book is FULL of secrets for those who understand'm! But always remember, the BIGGEST secret is Creation itself!

 

YES, THIS IS MY VOICE. These are my words. My good friend Harvey [Arden] has helped me sort and arrange them, like he’s done for lots of good people over the years, even back when he worked at National Geographic. He fixes my spelling and spruces up my grammar here and there, though I tell him, not too much, Harvey! I want folks to know who I am and how I really talk and what I’m really like. Don’t make me some saintly old lady come down from Heaven on a moonbeam spoutin’ high-flown words.

 

Me, I’m just me, Grandma Edna Gordon, Hawk Clan Elder of the Seneca Nation, Six Nations Iroquois. I just turned 85, and am tryin’ my darndest to be a good person. Sometimes I succeed, but don’t stay around me when I get mad! I’m a raging hawk.

 

People’mselves aren’t holy. But what they do can be holy. Living a holy life, that’s what life’s for. Helping others, fighting injustice, standing up for the People—those are holy things to do.  But always be sure to remember, it ain’t you yourself who’s holy. People are just people. If God’d wanted’m to be holy, he’d have given’m wings and set’m up on a cloud somewhere playin’ a big gold harp.

 

ISBN: 0975443712; ISBN-13: 9780975443712, Paperback.  Publisher: Have You Thought Price: $21.95 

 

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POETRY CIRCLE...

 


Ghost dancers, dance to the beat of the drum,

In rhythm in another time,

Hearts beat, the drum speaks,

Arms out stretched,

Eyes look to the sky,

Ancestor's witness, a scene of desperation,

A plea for help to save their land,

To save their culture,

To save their people,

They dance for days,

Dedicated,

Inspirited,

Sacrifice,

No food nor water, nor sleep,

Stomping feet, chanting to the beat,

Soldiers remember Custer's defeat,

Hotchkiss guns placed in position,

Troops swoop,

As snow falls,

The day is dark,

Weapons seized, atmosphere tense,

Snatch and grab,

Arrogance and abruptness, roughness,

Employed,

Indians annoyed,

Deafness not tolerated,

The actions of the soldiers,

Were deliberate and deadly,

Revenge in mind, and carried out,

The excuse to shoot,

Because one did not hear,

Was all the troops needed, to unleash hell,

Children playing, cut to pieces,

Women running stuck hard and fell,

Blood splattered on the snow covered ground,

Warriors fight to no avail,

Bare hands against rifles and guns of mass murder,

Bows and arrows no match for technology,

Big foot frozen for all eternity,

This vision of him will last over a magnitude of time,

With Sitting Bulls murder a week before,

The 7th Calvary and troops from hell, had their vengeance,

They contrived this massacre at Wounded Knee,

They go down in history as nothing,

But contemptible cowards,

Despicable, to the core.

My vision through the eyes of another,

Osceola Birdman Waters.

 

 

 

 


INSPIRATIONAL MESSAGE

 

Promise Yourself
  • Promise yourself to be so strong that nothing can disturb your peace of mind.
  • To talk health, happiness, and prosperity to every person you meet.
  • To make all your friends feel that there is something in them.
  • To look at the sunny side of everything and make your optimism come true.
  • To think only of the best, to work only for the best and expect only the best.
  • To be enthusiastic about the success of others as you are about your own.
  • To forget past mistakes and press on to greater achievements of the future.
  • To wear a cheerful countenance and give every living creature you meet a smile.
  • To give so much time to self-improvement that you have no time to criticize others.
  • To be too large for worry, too noble for anger, too strong for fear and too happy.

 


 

HEALING PRAYER BASKET

Prayer and ceremony work.  Creator heals and brings peace.

 

 

 

Crossing Over...

 

Major Fred Blue Eagle Wilson, (Canadian Mohawk) Passed away on Oct. 1, 2007. He was one of the Tuskegee Airmen from World War II.  Blue Eagle was a true hero.  fowilson@legacy.com   Steve Roragen, Commando, Roanoke, VA  110-01-07

 

Rev. David Salmon (Fairbanks, AK) -- The first traditional chief for the Athabascan people of
the Interior died Thursday at his home in Chalkyitsik. Salmon was 95.   10-16-07

 

Vernon Bellecourt (WaBun-Inini) Anishinabe/Ojibwe Nation (Minnesota) Hailed as one of Indian's greatest champions, Bellecourt, 75, passed today.  Throughout his life he fought to preserve the integrity of indigenous people.  Vernon was principal spokesman for the American Indian Movement and a leader in actions ranging from the 1972 occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington to the 1992 Redskin Superbowl demonstrations. He was Co-founder and first Executive Director of the Denver AIM Chapter. His involvement at Wounded Knee in 1973 led to a Federal indictment. He was a special representative of the International Indian Treaty Council and helped organize the first Treaty Conference in 1974. He was jailed for throwing his blood on the Guatemalan Embassy to protest the killing of 100,000 Indians. He was elected to a 4-year term in his White Earth tribal government and developed a model program for the spiritual education of Indian prisoners. Vernon was President of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports & Media and recipient of the City of Phoenix, Martin Luther King Human Rights Award 1993. He is called one of the finest orators of his time.  Chief Xielolixii  10-13-07

 

Wari Martin, Mohawk (Akwesasne NY),  who used to own White Deer Trading Post in Cold Spring has passed on.
 

Roy Black Bear (NY) who used to own Black Bear Trading Post near Esopus has passed on.
 

Albert Brosius (TN) - I lost 1 friend to cancer this past week he died on the full of the moon at 4am. I thought is was a sad lost in my heart, but was happy it was on the moon. I don't think it could have been nothing but the best time for him to cross. Tsi Runninbear  09-01-07

 

Twylah Nitsch had dropped her robes and made her final walk.  She was known by many and touched the hearts with her teachings. For me she was my friend and helped me through some difficult times in my life. Without her encouragement I would not have found my path. May her spirit help us all from the other side and in our remembering of her may her teachings live on. If you had the honor of meeting her you will remember her wonderful sense of humor and the wisdom she spoke to us all.  Waynonaha Two Worlds 08-21-07

 

Horse Family - three members of the Billy Evans Horse family were found in a submerged minivan after a flash flood near Carnegie, OK.  Dorita Horse, 77, wife of Billy Evans Horse, chairman of the Kiowa tribe, their daughter, Helen Horse, 34, and a niece Rose Saddleblanket, 17, all of Carnegie were last seen when their vehicle rolled off State Highway 58.  Billy Evans Horse witnessed the van drift away as he stood helplessly atop a stalled truck.  The Horse family was returning from a powwow in Lawton, Oklahoma.  Gram Selma  08-20-07

 

Jamie Pierce (Horton, AL)  Daughter of Wonda and Mark Pierce died recently in an automobile accident.  Jamie loved attending powwows. Jamie help edit the Misty Mountain News. She is survived by two daughters, Heaven and Echo.  Please keep the family in your prayers.  Jennifer Whitefeather Attaway  08-07-07

 


Prayer Needed - Sickness, Injury, Troubles...

 

Floyd Westerman (California) is alive and struggling for his life. He is at the Cedar Sinai hospital in southern California.  He is on life support and is showing signs of improvement with multiple health issues the main being he does have leukemia which is complicating his condition.  Please send prayers for his recovery.  Helen RedWing  11-08-07

 

Ms. Van Lynch (Memphis, TN) Tennessee Indian Commissioner admitted to the hospital suffering from a heart attack and scheduled to undergo surgery. She needs our prayers, so start sending Smoke and Prayers for her.  You know that due to her age and condition this is risky. So please keep her and the family in your prayers. We will let everyone know as soon as we hear anything.  Red Wing Vinson  11-01-07

 

Clover TwoBears Johnson. Suffered a mini-stroke in April of 2007 and diagnosed with Diabetes and MS. as well.  Duane (Lame Wolf) Rowland  11-01-07

 

3 Children Injured in Accident (Atkins, AR) A four-wheeler with three 10-year-old children ran into the path of a pick-up truck on October 24 and were seriously injured.  Please pray for these children, their families and my brother, Chuck who was driving the pick-up truck.  10-27-07  Cheryl Wilkinson  

 

MacKenzie Reed (Lehighton, PA)   My 10-pound great granddaughter is again in the hospital.  He feeding tube gave her a serious, life-threatening staph infection.  She is receiving Healing Bear medicine.  Please offer up a tobacco offering for MacKenzie.  Carol elsi Spirit Dove Henderson 10-9-07

 

Shanan (FL) I wrote last week telling the good news that she is now cancer free, but she is back in the hospital!  Her  mother is a breast cancer survivor and on and off chemotherapy.   Her parents are my elders. Thank you one and all. Gram Selma 10-08-07

 

Bernard Belvin Jr. (TX)  Has been given a "Clean Bill of Health" -- No sign of cancer now Prayers offered up the Creator heard and answered.. I know the prayers from the Mountain and other places were heard.  Thank You God and the People of Manataka Red Wing 10-04-07

 

Clover. Diagnosed with having a mini-stroke in April and then diabetes, type 2 and M.S. I will also offer prayer for all here.  ~Duane Rowland  09-01-07

 

Daniel Seven Hawk Eyes Hoffman (Springfield, IL)  Grandfather Hawk underwent surgery today.  We pray for his speedy recovery.  ~Bear 08-15-07

 

Manataka Prayer Warriors: Mama Possum in Hawaii says lava flows, hurricane and earthquake creating much suffering. The earthquake was 5.3 on the scale.  Her last statement was "Please pray for Hawaii!"  Helen Redwing Vinson 08-14-17

 

Shelton Robinson (Cordova, TN) Please pray for my sister in law and her husband  Elaine and Shelton Robinson  Shelton was diagnosed with prostrate cancer. Helen Red Wing Vinson 08-14-07

 

Good news.  Shelton's cancer is contained.  It is a Type T1cNoMo, Stage 6 (out of 10).  Will be back in full swing in 6 weeks.  God is good!  ~Elaine 08-17-07

 

Mackenzie Shane (Emmaus, PA) Great granddaughter born premature has a tube to breathe and a feeding tube in her.  She still only weighs 11 lb. at 13 months-old. She is fighting for her life. She cannot eat or breath in her own.  Please pray for her.  Carol Spirit Dove Henderson 08-03-07

 

Catherine Halash (Battle Creek, MI) I've had 2 very near misses during the month of July and I ask for your thought, prayers, and smoke on the wind to help in this hour of need. I thank the Creator for the time he has given me and the joy of each day, especially those beyond 11/06, my expected expiration date.  A sore on my leg wouldn't heal and became septic, I became dehydrated, and the kidney stones became unbearable between.  I had an anaphylactic shock and near miss  08-03-07

 

Erwin Gordan - Grandfather Gordy (a.k.a. Sonny - (Seneca Nation) This is to let folks know is doing after his second leg amputation. He's still at Benedictine Hospital, in rehab, room #2407. His spirits are good. He was flirting like crazy with the pretty nurse. She gave him Vitamin C, and he said he's heard of the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Adriatic Sea, but he doesn't know about any Vitamin Sea. So I guess he's feeling better. Looks like he'll be in the hospital for another 2-3 weeks, then probably the nursing home in Margaretville for another couple of weeks, then back home.  Henrietta Wise 08-06-07

 

Debi Redhawk Pulido - Many aches and pains from broken leg.  Doing better.  08-06-07

 

 


 

 Memorials...

In Memory of Corbin Harney

Corbin Harney Spiritual Leader of the Western Shoshone Nation who dedicated his life to fighting the nuclear testing and dumping.  He loved and cared for his family, friends and all creation.

 

In Memory of Granny Messenger

She had over 1,000 grandchildren but never a child. Her memory will live with us forever.  Anonymous Contributor  

 

In Memory of Lance Selvidge

Webster’s definition of a Martyr:  1:  A person who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a belief.  2: A person who sacrifices something of great value, especially life itself for the sake of principle.  Lance, we are all better because you walked this world, we will all become better because you look back with eyes from the angels world. Thank You.  The Selvidge Family. Little River Rock.

 

In Memory of Ruby Gilliham

We will always remember this gracious and beautiful woman in our hearts.  She will remain a part of Manataka forever - Standing Bear.  Greg Gilliham, Little Rock

 

 


 

Did you submit a prayer request above?  If so, please send us an update. 

We are reluctant to remove anyone without knowing if more prayers are needed. 

 


 

MANATAKA ANNOUNCEMENTS...

 

Manataka Seeks Grant Writer

A wonderful lady who has experience and good spirit has volunteered to be a grant writer for Manataka.  We still need at least one more. 

 

MAIC has several worthwhile projects that are severely under-funded.  Two of the projects are of unique design and proven effectiveness.  For the past 10 years, all programs and services were self-funded by members and supporters and we have not applied for financial assistance.  The worthiness of these programs requires more funds than can realistically be provided by individual contributions.  Experienced grant writers please contact: manataka@sbcglobal.net  

 

Manataka Seeks Advisory Board Members

Elders approved a motion to establish an Advisory Board who will research and develop recommendations to the Elder Council.  MAIC specifically seeks educators, attorneys, accountants, business leaders and other professionals to join the MAIC Advisory Board.  Please contact: manataka@sbcglobal.net

 


 

OCTOBER 2007 ELDER COUNCIL MEETING

 

The October meeting was held on the 21st and started at 10:00 a.m.  All elders were present and a quorum was declared by the chair.  An invocation was give by David Quiet Wind Furr.       

 

Discussions:

  • Elder Council Appointments - Two individuals were discussed 

  • Discussion on Fall Gathering - 

  • Event Ceremony Protocols - Ceremonies in the Sacred Circle to be led by Patty Blue Star.    

  • Manataka invitation with US Congressional representatives

  • Manataka trademark registration progress report  

  • Elder Council Organization  

 Tabled Discussions and Motions:

  • MASELA (Manataka Ambassador to Spiritual Elders of Latin America) Project.  

  • Asset Acquisition project - Manataka American Indian Cultural Center.

Approved Motions: 

  • The November Spirit Keeper Award will be given to Dorothy "Dottie" Little White Dove Furr 

Rejected Motions:

None 

 

Presentations:

None

 

Announcements: 

Next meeting to be held November 18, 2007 starting at 9 a.m. hosted by Patty Blue Star Burdette

 

Meeting adjourned at 11:30 a.m.

 


A detailed report was delivered during the regular membership meeting held on the same date. 

 


MANATAKA ORGANIZATIONAL MESSAGES


 

NOTICE 1:    ELDER COUNCIL POSITION FILLED:  A formal announcement of selection Robert King Gray Hawk King and induction ceremonies were held July 15.   

 

NOTICE 2:     ELDER COUNCIL ADVISORY BOARD:  We are excepting nominations for five (5) positions on the Elder Council Advisory Board.  We are specifically looking for candidates in these fields:  Accounting, Business, Education, Law and Social Services.  Positions are not limited only to these fields.  Members are expected to donate 5-10 hours per month. Members of the Advisory Board are paid a stipend and travel expense to annual meetings.  

 

NOTICE 3:    FOOD BASKETS NEEDED NOW!  people are hungry often throughout the year.  Please bring or send non-perishable food items. Gift cards for food from Walmart, Safeway and other stores are great. 

 

NOTICE 4:    REGULAR MEMBERSHIP MEETINGS - 1:00 p.m., 3rd Sunday each month at Gulpha Gorge.  In case of inclement weather (rain, sleet, snow, below 40 degrees) we meet Ryan's Restaurant located at 4538 Central Avenue across from Hot Springs Mall.

 

Gatherings are normally held on the 3rd weekend of June (closest to the Summer Solstice) and the 3rd weekend of October (closest to the Winter Solstice).  The date of the Spring Encampment varies from year to year. 

 

NOTICE 5:    WOMEN’S COUNCIL MEETINGS - 11:30 a.m., 1st Saturday each month.  Contact: Becky Moore

 

NOTICE 6:    PAID YOUR DUES?
Now is a good time to support the many programs, services and events of MAIC. We can always use a donation. Pay by check or credit card online. It's easy, secure and fast!   Click Here  Or send to: MAIC, PO Box 476, Hot Springs, AR 71902

 

NOTICE 7:      MATERIAL DONATIONS NEEDED BY MANATAKA
1.  15 - 30 gallon plastic storage boxes with lids.

 

2.  LAND -  Donate land to be used as financing leverage for to build a cultural center. Any size/location is acceptable. Tax benefits may apply.

 

3.  MEMORIAL GIFTS - When a friend or relative passes, honor their memory and send a tax deductible  contribution to MAIC and we will send the family a beautiful letter and memorial certificate in your name.

 

THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO DONATED STAMPS, PAPER AND OTHER SUPPLIES!


 

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Publisher:

Manataka American Indian Council
PO Box 476
Hot Springs, AR 71902-0476
501-627-0555
manataka@sbcglobal.net
http://www.manataka.org

Editor:

Lee Standing Bear Moore

MAIC Correspondents:

Jennifer Attaway, Alabama

Sheri Burnett, Georgia

Crystal Harvey, Arkansas

Carol Henderson

Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman, Illinois

Grandmother Selma, Florida

Bennie LeBeau, Wyoming

Julie Maltagliati, Florida

Magdala, Arkansas

Bobby Joe Runninbear, Tennessee 

Helen Red Wing Vinson, Tennessee

Liora Leah Zack, California

Paula Unega Ulogidv Phillips, Arkansas

Waynonaha Two Worlds

Contributors:

Susan Bates, Missouri

David Cornsilk, Oklahoma

Don Coyhis

Andrea Crambit, California

Bonnie Two Owl Feathers Delcourt, New Hampshire 

Valerie Eagle Heart

Maxine Elisi Swan Dancer Fulgham

Romaine Garcia, Colorado

John James, Arkansas

Mark and Carla Maslin, New Mexico

Elaine Nowell, Mississippi / Arkansas

Corina Roberts, California

Scott Treaty

Linda VanBibber, Missouri

 

 

Disclaimer:

Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary
gain to those who have expressed an interest in viewing the
material for research and educational purposes.

This is in accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. section 107.

Reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law.

http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html
Non-profit/Teaching/Educational

 

 

 

OCTOBER 2007 SMOKE SIGNAL - PAGE 1

OCTOBER 2007 SMOKE SIGNAL - PAGE 2

OCTOBER 2007 SMOKE SIGNAL - PAGE 3

 

SMOKE SIGNAL NEWSLETTER ARCHIVES

 

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