Manataka American Indian Council                      Volume XI  Issue 09  SEPTEMBER 2007


SMOKE SIGNAL NEWS

Manataka - Preserving The Past Today For Tomorrow 

 

 

PAGE 3

 

Faster download!  The Smoke Signal this month is on 3 web pages.

 

 


 

Contents:              

PAGE

3

Hill & Holler: Searching For Truth

3

History: Canassatego - Father of Democratic Ideas

3

3

Grandfather Hawk Speaks:

Grandfather Bennie Lebeau:

Road Home

How Spiritual Awakening Works

3 Feature Story:

Manataka, Place of Peace – Myth or Reality?

3

Elder's Meditations: Alfonso Ortiz, San Juan Pueblo 

3

Women's Circle: Grandmothers' Environment Movement

3

Women's Council: Circle of Friends

3

Diet Watch: Pass the butter please....

3

Book Reviews:

1491: New Revelations... Before Columbus

Encylopedia of Native American Healing 

3

Poetry Circle: You Are...

3

Inspirational Thought:: The Final Analysis

3

Healing Prayer Basket: Crossing, Sickness, Troubles Need Prayers

3

Manataka  Business: Ho Hum.  Business always is...

 

 


         

HILL & HOLLER COLUMN

By Susan Bates

News and Notes From Indian Country


Searching For Truth


There is an old saying that you shouldn't believe everything you think. The older I've gotten, the more I've found the wisdom in this saying. How much of what you believe is the truth? All of it? Some of it?

Most of us believe the things we were taught in school. After all, aren't the lessons written in our textbooks ancient and "proven" knowledge. But what if the basis for that knowledge is false? How would our understanding of ourselves and how we live our lives change if we were given and accepted the truth?

For instance: We were taught that this country was sparsely inhabited and largely unused by a few naked heathen savages. But the truth is that every area of this country was home to many different tribes of man. Because our People didn't see resources as wealth, we didn't rape and pillage the land like the Europeans did. The "New World" was still a Paradise when the white man arrived.

When the white colonists came here they were amazed to find that the People had built great temples and Sacred Mounds. There were established trade routes and People decorated their bodies with gold and turquoise and pearls. These were things that European peasants could only dream of.

Some of these People, including but not limited to the Maya, had books - although you have been taught they didn't. The Spaniards burned thousands of these books so the Conquistadors wouldn't realize how advanced the Mayans were. And they certainly didn't want the colonists to know what was in them. Some of the books survive. Other tribes have oral traditions that speak of their own written volumes. Some writings survive today painted on rocks..

The conquering people were used to advanced civilizations in Europe and Asia and couldn't conceive of these "savages" having the knowledge and skills to do these things. Indeed, here they found great pyramids as massive and as beautiful as those in ancient Egypt. So they thought up the "Lost Tribe" theory to explain it.

One of the theories is that this country was uninhabited and that the people who did live here came came across a "land bridge" carrying with them this advanced knowledge. While some People did migrate to this continent via a land bridge, many others "woke up" here.

Every Nation of Original People on this continent has their own Creation stories which teach them where they came from. Most of these stories are passed down orally and through the observance of Sacred Ceremony carefully preserved from generation to generation. The problem is that only the stories of one small nation from far across the ocean are spoken of today. And since their creation stories tell them that God made Adam and Eve in a place called the Garden of Eden, then they want you to believe that all men came from there. This has led to much confusion and loss of truth which has allowed whole nations of people to be erased from memory.

Do you know what your ancestors believed and how they lived 5,000 years ago? How about 2,000 years or even 1,000 years ago? If your people came to this country many generations ago to become a part of the "Great Melting Pot", you might not have any idea. But traditional Native Peoples do know. Or could know if they want to.

Our Spiritual ways have survived in spite of the white man doing everything in his power to erase our memory. The sad thing is that many Native Peoples no longer follow their own ways but instead have adopted the religions and life styles of their conquerors.

Many, if not all tribes, still know their own stories and Sacred Ceremonies. In some tribes there are only a few elders clinging to life hoping that their People will return to their old ways before these elders die and take this Sacred Knowledge with them.

In this time of the Great Balancing, many People are going back to the Red Path and their own spiritual ways of living in balance with all things great and small.

But time is short. If you are sick of the confusion in your life and of the chaos you see in the world around you, take a stand. Go back to your own teachings. They are out there waiting for you to find them.

 

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"Once we walked the earth and our bodies were strong. Once we started each day with deep breaths and grateful thanks for all around us. Once we used the medicines, ceremonies that cured any sickness we had. Now it is different. We climb an unknown mountain searching for fresh air. We walk among an earth disrespected. We look for plants to heal our weakened bodies. The plants are polluted and dying as we are. We use what is left of our ceremonies to try to catch our breath. We are suffocated. Our Creator breathed life into us. He has a message - "For that which was taken from us will be returned sevenfold. Our Sacred Breath - it's time to take it back.
------Nancy Rac - Jicarrila Apache

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Susan Bates

susanbates@webtv.net

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HISTORY.... 

 

Canassatego - Father of Democratic Ideas

 

Canassatego, was an accomplished orator, leader and sachem among the Iroquois Confederation at the time of the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744.  He was greatly respected by his friend Benjamin Franklin who credits Canassatego as a contributor of original ideas of confederation used in writing the United States Constitution.

 
 
 
 

Treaty commissioners at Albany recall the words of Canassatego in 1775. By John Kahionhes Fadden 

http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp8.html

"You who are so wise must know that different nations have different conception of things. You will not therefore take it amiss if our ideas of the white man's kind of education happens not to be the same as yours. We have had some experience of it.

Several of our young people were brought up in your colleges. They were instructed in all your sciences; but, when they came back to us, they were all bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger. They didn't know how to build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy. They spoke our language imperfectly.

 

They were therefore unfit to be hunters, warriors, or counsellors; they were good for nothing.

We are, however, not the less obliged for your kind offer, though we decline accepting it. To show our gratefulness, it the gentleman of Virginia shall send us a dozen of their sons, we will take great care with their education, instruct them in all we know, and make men of them."


Canassatego - Treaty of Lancaster

~Submitted by Guy Sheppard

 

 


 

THE HAWK SPEAKS

 

The Road Home

 

As we travel the 'Long Road' to our final destination, we often times may feel that life is not quite fair to us.

 

I once heard someone say, "I felt sorry for myself because my feet hurt all the time, but then I meet a man who had no feet, my feelings of self-pity changed and I was able to endure the pain."

 

With all the pain-causing problems we face today, most of us will at one time or another be affected. Whether it is sickness such as the flu or an infection of some sort, we are all vulnerable unless we take precautions.

 

Old age is an enemy that will visit each and every one of us and with this old enemy come many physical ailments. Our body begins to show the wear, the heart, our lungs, eyes and even our ears start to fail in some way as we get older.

 

We soon realize that our precious life here on 'Mother Earth' is getting shorter and shorter. We should keep in mind it is not the quantity of our life but rather the quality that is most important. We should try to live our lives with the view of our creator in mind. Live every day the creator has given us with respect 'Mother Earth' and our brothers and sisters. If we are good to all our relations and care for our 'Mother Earth' we will be supported by our loving father, The Creator.  And when we reach our final destination, we may hear these words, "You have done well my son, now you may rest!"

 

I pray every day for our Elders and our brothers and sisters. I always ask a special blessing on our Elders who work so hard teaching us the things we need to know. May you all have peace! 

 

A'ho

 

Hawk With Seven Eyes

 

Daniel Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman is a founding member of the Taylorville Black Horse Powwow, Inc,' a nonprofit 501(c)(3) charitable and educational organization. He has given presentations at schools in Central Illinois area on the history, culture and religious beliefs of the Native American people for over 27 years. Hawk and members of his group present dance demonstrations for children who along with their teachers are invited to dance.  Hawk believes children are the future.  


 

 

BENNIE LeBEAU

Bennie E. "Blue Thunder" LeBeau Sr., an enrolled member of the Eastern Shoshone Nation, Wind River Indian Reservation, Ft. Washakie, Wyoming is a MAIC Newsletter Correspondent.  His "Teton Rainbow" and Earth Wisdom columns are regular features on these pages.  Blue Thunder, Teacher from among the Eastern Shoshone people.

 

How Spiritual Awakening Works:  What we have learned

 

1.    We are on a schedule; the Global Consciousness will rise in any case with us or without us; there is no way around it; whether we like it or not, it is now or later, to be or not to be to is the question to be considered.

 

2.    Father Sun is enforcing this Transformation of Peace, he is helping Mother Earth to purify & cleanse her Self; whether Humans want to participate, or not.

 

3.    Healing the Sacred Sites is the smoothest option for Humanity to go together with our Mother Earth through this required Transformation.

 

4.    Earth Healing ceremonies restores balance & harmony to Mother Earth swiftly/quickly, and raises Human Consciousness simultaneously / at the same time; it is a pro-active approach, not a re-active approach.

 

5.    Earth Healing directs & channels the incoming electromagnetic Solar Forces in a constructive way, not in a destructive way as we work together with our gifts in healing all that is within the circle. Working with the forces of Creator coming in everyday from the Sun, Moon, Stars and Planets.

 

6.    It is up to the collective Human species to consider whether we would like a smooth ride, or the very rough ride (the majority of the Human population would have to leave if they do not awaken spiritually). It is our mandate to bring this awareness or not, the choice is ours.

 

7.    If anybody has any doubt with this concept / with the theory, then they can refer to Carl Calleman at www.calleman.com,  or watch Ian Lungold on www.youtube.com  It is their discussion to bring awareness to the families raising the consciousness of what is going on around us.

 

8.    Still, knowing the theory does not solve the problem. One has to actually do it. Not talking the talk, but walking the talk. The current worldwide developments demonstrate that we are heading towards a dead end and at a high speed / fast.

 

9.    Also, it is not about arguing whether something would work or would not work, or whether someone could be right or could be wrong. It is about doing it, experiencing it, documenting it and proving it. Practicing until we set the harmony together as one family together from humanity all cultures working on oneness within the circle of life, Grandmother Spiders web held together by the sacred sites.

 

BlueThunder walks the talk. Following the dreams and visions shown by my ancestors in dreamtime and other ways of our ways in spirituality.   I know that I am working at my own evolutionary pace, a reflection of gifts of wisdom in the awareness sharing my gifts as others could do also, from my experience. With this reflection of what I can do I feel that I am doing my best in bring awareness, in other words if I can do this then others can also. 

 

Time is of essence. Time is short; the Time to act is now.

 

I pray others begin to being opening up the consequences of reality; the consciousness of humanity is awakening sharing the dreams and visions of peace. May we all walk this road to peace, Speaking our Truth in Words from the Heart of the Rose called, Spoken Truth, As Nations Unite Within The Souls We Walk, May Peace Prevail...

 

Blessings Be to Those Following the Heart of Peace, the Rose, The Many Messages for Peace following their Hearts in Oneness.  A Brother working for this Peace and Harmony

 

 


 

 

FEATURE...

 

Manataka, Place of Peace – Myth or Reality?

by Linda VanBibber

 

 

If you have not visited Hot Springs National Park and taken the ride up to the top of the observation tower on Hot Springs Mountain, you may have never heard of Manataka.  Unless you are a First Nations native.   But Ma-na-ta-ka has earned a mention in the National Parks Service ‘fact or fiction’ part of the display in the tower.  It is here that the stories of the Grandfathers who told of this place are challenged.

According to the Grandfathers, Manataka has always been the “Place of Peace” for all people in the Americas. The area was a place of cultural exchange and trade for all native peoples – a great melting pot of American Indian culture. The Valley of the Vapors was neutral territory unclaimed by any tribe.  

 

We are told that the Great Spirit decreed that all who visited here must ay down their weapons and bath as brothers in the Nówâ-sa-lon (Breath of Healing) hot waters. Even tribes who were hostile to each other acknowledged the truce while in the Place of Peace.  In spite of the Parks Service claim that there is no evidence that the waters were used by the natives, all people came for the healing and pleasure of  the 47 hot springs that spewed from the sides of the Mountain.  A visit to the remaining uncapped spring on “Bath House Row” in Hot Springs can give you some idea of the vapors that would be created by 47 springs on Manataka Mountain.   Sitting near the pool of deliciously hot water you can figure out for yourself if you need further evidence.   It draws the people like the lap of a mother.

 

No one was allowed to enter the ‘Valley of Vapors’ carrying a weapon into the sacred area of the valley.  No fighting or discord was allowed.  Should anyone violate these laws, they were taken outside the valley and severely punished.   The Lady of the Rainbow presided over the valley.  She appeared in white buckskin, holding one eagle feather in each hand. She stood on the mountain overseeing the peace.

 

If quarrels arose, a vision of the Rainbow Woman could be seen at twilight rising in the vapors of the highest pool as a warning to the offending person.  If the guilty one did not listen to this warning, the Lady of the Rainbow came to him and dropped one feather at his feet.  This told him that it would be wiser to fly away than to disturb the peace again.  If this warning was not heeded, she dropped the second feather as a sign to his family and others to remove the offender from the valley by whatever means necessary.   

 

There is a trail on Manataka Mountain called ‘Dead Chief’s Trail’. It is said that this Chief did not heed the warnings of the Lady and disappeared without a trace on this trail.

 

The Grandfathers also tell us that tribal leaders prayed and made peace offerings to the Creator, the Great Manataka Mountain and each other.  They danced and sang around huge campfires in the narrow valley situated between the Manataka Mountain (Hot Springs Mountain) and her sister mountain, today called North Mountain. 

 

Her other sister mountain, today called Indian Mountain stood guardian to her east.  Daughters of the First Nations gathered rare medicinal herbs found in great abundance in a large area Trade items were also exchanged on blankets spread out in dozens of camps just outside the sacred valley surrounding. Their sons found precious clear crystals, gold, silver, pyrite, and whetstones. Trade items were also exchanged on blankets spread out in dozens of camps just outside the sacred valley.

 

Spiritual elders also brought gifts from their tribes to Manataka.  Some gifts were intended to establish friendships and diplomacy between various tribes; others were personal gifts between long-time friends.  Other more precious gifts were ceremonial offerings for the sacred mountain.            

Our Grandfathers say that gifts were place in the caves on Manataka Mountain.  You can’t visit the caves.  They have all been closed in the process of rerouting the water of the hot springs so that their healing energy could be sold to the public.

 

But the caves, “Myth” according to the National Park Service, are another irrefutable geological feature of Manataka Mountain.  It is said by the Grandfathers that seven holy caves were on the sacred mountain. 

 

We are told by the grandfathers that the center cave is made of magnificent shining crystal encoded with messages from the star people.  Inside the crystal cave are seven shields and seven crystal cones set on a crystal altar, each containing a secret message. No one ever approached the this sacred crystal cave, as it was said to have been the work place of the star people (angels?) and the resting place of many spirits.   

 

The cave located to the left of the crystal cave was used by the 'Keepers of Manataka', the Tula Indians, who lived in surrounding areas and for other tribes living nearby such as the Caddo, Quapaw, Osage, Tunica, and Pawnee. 

 

To the right of the center crystal cave was a ceremonial cave reserved for gifts for the other inhabitants of this land - the animals, birds, fish, insects, plants, stones and the elements.  The southern-most cave, nearest the surface of the ground, once held the Manataka Stone, or as referred to by the National Park Service, the "Calendar Stone" brought by people from the south.  The Calendar Stone was removed after the Civil War by workmen digging on the mountain to capture the sacred waters of the hot springs, Nowasalon, and build ornate bathhouses for the rich. 

 

An ancient clay doll was recovered from the northern cave some time in the early 1900's by workmen and is currently on loan to the Smithsonian Museum in Washington.   The people of the North laid gifts in the northern-most cave; people of the South laid their gifts in the Southern-most cave.  Two other caves were used by the people from the west and east for offering ceremonies. 

 

Each of the seven caves disappeared a various times after the invasion began in the 1500's, either at the hand of the invaders or by natural or supernatural causes.  The caves have disappeared, but the story of Manataka will not disappear.   The Manataka American Indian Council is dedicating to  preserving the sacred history of the Place of Peace.  The Peace of the Rainbow Woman is still felt there.   The next time you’re in Hot Springs, drop by.

 

Aho!

 


FUNNY BONES

No offense intended for any individuals or tribes.

 

How Smart Is Your Right Foot?

This is so hilarious and it will boggle your mind.  Keep trying it at least 50 times to see if you  can outsmart your right foot.  Bet you can not do it!

1.    While sitting at your desk, lift your right  foot off the floor and make clockwise circles with it.

2.    While doing this, draw the number "6" in  the air with your Right Hand.

 

        Your foot will change directions every time!!!

I told you so... And there is  nothing you can do about it.

Make sure you pass  this on to your friends... They won't be able to do it either!!!

 

~Submitted by Bobby Joe Runninbear

 


 

ELDER'S MEDITATION

 

One is not born a Tewa but rather one is made a Tewa...once made, one has to

work hard continuously throughout one's life to remain a Tewa."  -Alfonso Ortiz, San Juan Pueblo 

 

Being Indian is being spiritual. It is not the color of our skin. Being Indian is how we think. We need to learn our culture, our language, our dances, our traditions and customs. It is one thing to know these things, but another to live them. We need to spend time with the Elders and get their guidance. We need to go to the mountains, woods and desert to pray. Being spiritual is the way for us to think right. Walking the Red Road and thinking right is the greatest gift we can give to our children. 

Grandfather,

help me to

Walk the

Talk.

By Don Coyhis


 

WOMEN'S COUNCIL

YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED TO JOIN

THE MANATAKA WOMEN'S COUNCIL

'CIRCLE OF FRIENDS'

 

The Manataka Women's Council 'Circle of Friends'; meets the first Saturday of each month at 11:30 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. Coffee is provided, food and other soft beverages are brought by individuals to share. Please remember to bring your drums or other musical instruments to meetings. (When meetings are held at Gulpha Gorge please bring a lawn chair, something to drink, and a snack to share.)  Meeting are held at various locations during bad weather - email us to find out where.

 

Regular Membership Meetings - Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
September 1 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
October 6 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR

November 3

Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
December 1 Gulpha Gorge Campground, Hot Springs, AR
   

Donations of nonperishable food items, toiletries, and bio-friendly cleaning supplies will be accepted and are greatly appreciated. Requests for assistance are year-round.  Please send or bring.

 

Please direct any questions our comments to Becky 'Flaming Owl Peacekeeper' Moore at manataka@sbcglobal.net

 

Join Us!

 


 

WOMEN'S CIRCLE

 

 

Grandmothers' Environment Movement

By Carson Walker, Associated Press Writer

 

 

 

 
  Sisters Rita and Beatrice Long Visitor Holy Dance take part in a prayer ceremony

HOT SPRINGS, S.D. - Several times a day over three days, 13 women from around the world, several in their 80s, gathered around an open fire as each led a prayer ceremony unique to her native tribe.

 

After each outdoor gathering they moved into a convention center auditorium, where they exchanged ideas and learned about problems that plague the Oglala Lakota who live on the nearby Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

 

Among them: high unemployment, suicide, domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse, diabetes and contaminated water.

 

The women share a common vision and mission to spare future generations’ problems that now vex much of society.

 

"It's hard to be proud of your cultural heritage and traditions if every day you face extinction," Debra White Plume of Manderson told the women.

 

The women, formally called the International Council of Thirteen Indigenous Grandmothers, come from Africa, Asia and the Americas. Their languages, cultures and traditions are as different as their lands.

 

"They're not women of politics. They're women of prayer," said Jeneane Prevatt of The Center for Sacred Studies in Sonora, Calif., who goes by the name Jyoti.

 

The indigenous grandmothers hope to ease war, pollution and social ills by teaching traditional ways that served their people long before the birth of modern peace and environmental movements.

 

Roughly every six months, they visit each other's homelands, most recently in June here in the southern Black Hills, near the Pine Ridge reservation that's home to two of the women, sisters Rita and Beatrice Long Visitor Holy Dance.

 

During the prayer ceremonies, they spoke very little. Often the only sounds were the crackling fire and traffic on a nearby road.

 

"We're praying for peace, which is not only the wars but in our homes and in the schools. We need that peace amongst children," said Beatrice Long Visitor Holy Dance, who believes social problems on the reservation are a direct result of people abandoning traditional ways of life.

 

The group first met in October 2004 in New York. So far their effort has earned them a meeting with the Dalai Lama and a relationship with the Bioneers environmental group.

 

The 13 women next plan to meet in October at San Rafael, Calif., for the annual conference of the Bioneers, who share the indigenous grandmothers' belief that there's a spiritual aspect to life and more to environmentalism than preventing pollution, said Nina Simons, co-executive director.

 

"We will never have environmental sanity and health while there are so many people living in abject poverty," she said. "We can't expect people to care about the environment when they're worried about feeding their children."

 

The grandmothers and Bioneers also believe that natural solutions can fix many modern problems, such as using a type of mushroom to digest petroleum spills, Simons said. 

 

"Part of our challenge is to learn to have a relationship with nature that makes it healthier and stronger instead of weaker and depleted," she said.

 

The Black Hills conference attracted people from the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Spain, France, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Nepal and Brazil.

 

Among the roughly 250 people attending the gathering was Jan Rhine of Newberg, Ore., who was raised in Africa by missionary parents. She said the grandmothers movement makes her appreciate a simpler way of life.

 

"As technology has grown, along with the gifts it brings, we've lost our roots to nature, to mother earth and to each other. And what they are doing is bringing back these old ways that they and their tribes have carried throughout the centuries, bringing it back into this new modern technology to help us remember who we really are and what this planet is really about," Rhine said.

___

On the Net:

Grandmothers Council: http://www.grandmotherscouncil.com/

Grandmothers Film: http://www.forthenext7generations.com/

Bioneers: http://www.bioneers.org/

 


 

House passed H.R.3093 - National Tribal Order of Protection and Sex Offender Registry

 

The 2008 Commerce-Justice-Science appropriations bill, which increases funding for the safety of Native women.  The funding includes the following:  $1 million for the National Tribal Order of Protection and Sex Offender Registry; $1 million for national baseline study to examine violence against Indian women including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and murder. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of Federal, State, Tribal and local responses to such crimes; $6 million for services for children exposed to domestic violence and sexual assault including services provided by shelters, rape crisis centers, and children's organizations. This program contains a 10% tribal set-aside. $6 million for direct services for youth and teen victims of domestic violence and sexual violence. This program contains a 10% tribal set-aside. Other budget items include $5 million for the Court Improvement Program, some of which will be available to tribal courts. The bill goes to the Senate for consideration. President Bush has said he will veto it [Statement of Administration Policy:

http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=24852].

 

 

Q. What do bulletproof vests, fire escapes, windshield wipers, and laser printers all have in common?

A. All were invented by women.

 
 

DIET WATCH

 

Pass the butter please....

 

The modern replacement for farm produced butter is a substance called margarine. 

 

Margarine was originally manufactured to fatten turkeys. When it killed the turkeys, the people who had put all the money into the research wanted a payback so they put their heads together to figure out what to do with this product to get their money back. It was a white substance with no food appeal so they added the yellow coloring and sold it to people to use in place of butter. How do you like it? They have come out with some clever new flavorings.

DO YOU KNOW... the difference between margarine and butter?

Both have the same amount of calories.
 

Butter

  • Butter is slightly higher in saturated fats at 8 grams compared to 5 grams.
     

  • According to a recent Harvard Medical Study, increases the absorption of many other nutrients in other foods.

  • Butter has many nutritional benefits where margarine has a few only because they are added!

  • Butter tastes much better than margarine and it can enhance the flavors of other foods. 

  • Butter has been around for centuries.  Margarine has been around for less than 100 years. 

Margarine..

  •  Very high in Trans fatty acids.

  • Triple risk of coronary heart disease. 

  • Eating margarine can increase heart disease in women by 53%

  • Increases total cholesterol and LDL (this is the bad cholesterol)

  • Lowers HDL cholesterol, (the good cholesterol)

  • Increases the risk of cancers up to five fold.

  • Lowers quality of breast milk.

  • Decreases immune response.

  • Decreases insulin response.

Margarine, described as by Dictionary.com, is “a fatty solid butter substitute consisting of a blend of hydrogenated vegetable oils mixed with emulsifiers, vitamins, coloring matter, and other ingredients.”

 

And here's the most disturbing fact.... 

Margarine is but ONE MOLECULE away from being PLASTIC..

This fact alone was enough to have me avoid margarine for life and anything else that is hydrogenated (this means hydrogen is added, changing the molecular structure of the substance).

Tr
y this:
Buy a tub of margarine and leave it in your garage or shaded area for two days. Here is what will happen:

  • No flies, not even those pesky fruit flies will go near it (that should tell you something)

  • Margarine does not rot or smell differently because it has no nutritional value;

  • Nothing will grow on it not micro-organisms will find a home to grow in margarine.

Why? Because it is nearly plastic. Would you melt your Tupperware and spread that on your toast?

Share This With Your Friends To Butter Them Up!

 

~Submitted by Waynonaha

 



BOOK REVIEW:

 

Manataka Recommended Reading

 

 

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

Charles Mann

Knopf Publishing Group

Hardcover, 480pp  $26.95 + s/h

 

"In the last 20 years, archaeologists and anthropologists equipped with new scientific techniques have made far-reaching discoveries about the Americas. For example, Indians did not cross the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago, as most of us learned in school. They were already here. Their numbers were vast, not few. And instead of living lightly on the land, they managed it beautifully and left behind an enormous ecological legacy. In this riveting, accessible work of science, Charles Mann takes us on an journey of scientific exploration. We learn that the Indian development of modern corn was one of the most complex feats of genetic engineering ever performed. That the Great Plains are a third smaller today than they were in 1700 because the Indians who maintained them by burning died. And that the Amazon rain forest may be largely a human artifact. Compelling and eye-opening, this work will vastly alter our understanding of our history and lands."  By Peter Johnson.

 

A groundbreaking study that radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans in 1492.

Traditionally, Americans learned in school that the ancestors of the people who inhabited the Western Hemisphere at the time of Columbus's landing had crossed the Bering Strait twelve thousand years ago; existed mainly in small, nomadic bands; and lived so lightly on the land that the Americas was, for all practical purposes, still a vast wilderness. But as Charles C. Mann now makes clear, archaeologists and anthropologists have spent the last thirty years proving these and many other long-held assumptions wrong.

In a book that startles and persuades, Mann reveals how a new generation of researchers equipped with novel scientific techniques came to previously unheard-of conclusions. Among them:

• In 1491 there were probably more people living in the Americas than in Europe.
• Certain cities- such as Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital- were far greater in population than any contemporary European city. Furthermore, Tenochtitlán, unlike any capital in Europe at that time, had running water, beautiful botanical gardens, and immaculately clean streets.
• The earliest cities in the Western Hemisphere were thriving before the Egyptians built the great pyramids.
• Pre-Columbian Indians in Mexico developed corn by a breeding process so sophisticated that the journal Science recently described it as "man's first, and perhaps the greatest, feat of genetic engineering."
• Amazonian Indians learned how to farm the rain forest without destroying it- a process scientists are studying today in thehope of regaining this lost knowledge.
• Native Americans transformed their land so completely that Europeans arrived in a hemisphere already massively "landscaped" by human beings.

Mann sheds clarifying light on the methods used to arrive at these new visions of the pre-Columbian Americas and how they have affected our understanding of our history and our thinking about the environment. His book is an exciting and learned account of scientific inquiry and revelation. 

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BOOK REVIEW

 

 

 

CP560 - ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NATIVE AMERICAN HEALING 

by William S. Lyon
Huge Resource. This monumental volume explores, explains, and honors the healing practices of Native Americans throughout North America, from the southwestern U.S. to the Arctic. Designed for ease of use with maps, a detailed subject index, extensive bibliography, and cross references, this book is sure to fascinate anyone interested in Native American culture and heritage. Illustrations, maps. Paperback: 373 pages; 88" x 10.26" x 7.28" 
ON SALE! Was $33.95  Now only $23.95 + s/h

 

This monumental volume explores, explains, and honors the shamanic healing practices of Native Americans throughout North America. From the Southwestern United States to the Arctic Circle.

Healing traditions in Native American cultures offer a glimpse into a rich and varied world of belief systems and spiritual practices. Covering over 350 years of history. More than 1200 entries in this book introduce readers to renowned Native American healers and to the societies and divisions into which healers were categorized. It describes sacred objects used in healing rituals and how such objects were used, as well as plants used to increase healing powers. Types of healing ceremonies are vividly pictured, and the symbolic motifs used in healing rituals are explained along with the major concepts that formed the many diverse Native American healing traditions. Major scholars of native american healing are introduced, complete with firsthand accounts of their experiences. Entries include:

Helika, the form of supernatural power used by Kwakiutl Shamans for curing. Naitulgai, the Wailaki dream doctors who cured by singing healing songs shown to them in dreams. Aenichit, a powerful Clayoquot Shaman who healed the sick and was known to lift liquid water out of a bucket as though it were frozen.

Designed as an easy to use, comprehensive synthesis of centuries of study, with maps, a detailed subject index, an extensive bibliography, and cross-references, this book will fascinate anyone interested in Native American culture and heritage.

William S. Lyon is a professor of anthropology at the Center for Religious Studies at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, and the author of Black Elk: The Sacred Ways of a Lakota.
 

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Voice of the Hawk Elder

by Edna Gordon, edited by Harvey Arden

 

"This book is dedicated to my People, the Seneca Nation, to our kindred Peoples of the Haudenoshaunee, or Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy, to all the Indian Nations of Great Turtle Island, and to  all other Indigenous Peoples around this Mother Earth.  I send it out like an arrow of love from my heart to YOUR hearts!

 

If  other folks want to read it too, why, that’s fine by me. Might be you even learn something! This book is FULL of secrets for those who understand'm! But always remember, the BIGGEST secret is Creation itself!

 

YES, THIS IS MY VOICE. These are my words. My good friend Harvey [Arden] has helped me sort and arrange them, like he’s done for lots of good people over the years, even back when he worked at National Geographic. He fixes my spelling and spruces up my grammar here and there, though I tell him, not too much, Harvey! I want folks to know who I am and how I really talk and what I’m really like. Don’t make me some saintly old lady come down from Heaven on a moonbeam spoutin’ high-flown words.

 

Me, I’m just me, Grandma Edna Gordon, Hawk Clan Elder of the Seneca Nation, Six Nations Iroquois. I just turned 85, and am tryin’ my darndest to be a good person. Sometimes I succeed, but don’t stay around me when I get mad! I’m a raging hawk.

 

People’mselves aren’t holy. But what they do can be holy. Living a holy life, that’s what life’s for. Helping others, fighting injustice, standing up for the People—those are holy things to do.  But always be sure to remember, it ain’t you yourself who’s holy. People are just people. If God’d wanted’m to be holy, he’d have given’m wings and set’m up on a cloud somewhere playin’ a big gold harp.

 

ISBN: 0975443712; ISBN-13: 9780975443712, Paperback.  Publisher: Have You Thought Price: $21.95 

 

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POETRY CIRCLE...

 

YOU ARE...

by Carol Spirit Dove Henderson

 

You are strong when you take your grief and teach it to smile.

 

You are brave when you overcome your fear

and help others to do the same.


You are happy when you see a flower and give it your blessing.


You are loving when your own pain does not blind you

to the pain of others.

 

You are wise when you know the limits of your wisdom.


You are true when you admit there are times you fool yourself.


You are alive when tomorrow's hope means more to you

than yesterday's mistake.


You are growing when you know what you are

but not what you will become.

You are free when you are in control of yourself

and do not wish to control others.


You are honorable when you find your honor is to honor others.


You are generous when you can take as sweetly as you can give.


You are humble when you do not know how humble you are.


You are thoughtful when you see me just as I am

and treat me just as you are.


You are merciful when you forgive in others

the faults you condemn in yourself.


You are beautiful when you don't need a mirror to tell you.


You are rich when you never need more than what you have.


You are you when you are at peace with who you are not.

 

 

 

 

 


INSPIRATIONAL MESSAGE

 

THE FINAL ANALYSIS

 

People are often unreasonable, illogical and self centered.  

Forgive them anyway.

 

If you are kind, people might accuse you of selfless, ulterior motives.  

Be kind anyway.

 

If you are successful, you will win some false friends and some true enemies.   Succeed anyway. 

 

If you are true, honest and frank, people might cheat you.  

Be true, honest and frank anyway.

 

What you spend your years building, someone could destroy overnight.  

Build anyway.

 

If you find serenity and happiness, they may be jealous.  

Be happy anyway.

 

The good you do today, people will often forget tomorrow. 

Do good anyway.

 

Give the world the best you have, and it may never be enough.  

Give the world your best anyway.

 

You see, in the final analysis, it is between you and your maker.

It was never between you and them anyway.

 

~Submitted by Romaine Garcia

 


 

HEALING PRAYER BASKET

Prayer and ceremony work.  Creator heals and brings peace.

 

 

 

Crossing Over...

Wari Martin, Mohawk (Akwesasne NY),  who used to own White Deer Trading Post in Cold Spring has passed on.
 

Roy Black Bear (NY) who used to own Black Bear Trading Post near Esopus has passed on.

 

Twylah Nitsch had dropped her robes and made her final walk.  She was known by many and touched the hearts with her teachings. For me she was my friend and helped me through some difficult times in my life. Without her encouragement I would not have found my path. May her spirit help us all from the other side and in our remembering of her may her teachings live on. If you had the honor of meeting her you will remember her wonderful sense of humor and the wisdom she spoke to us all.  Memorial services were held at the burial mounds at Crystal River. Waynonaha Two Worlds 08-21-07

 

Horse Family - three members of the Billy Evans Horse family were found in a submerged minivan after a flash flood near Carnegie, OK.  Dorita Horse, 77, wife of Billy Evans Horse, chairman of the Kiowa tribe, their daughter, Helen Horse, 34, and a niece Rose Saddleblanket, 17, all of Carnegie were last seen when their vehicle rolled off State Highway 58.  Billy Evans Horse witnessed the van drift away as he stood helplessly atop a stalled truck.  The Horse family was returning from a powwow in Lawton, Oklahoma.  Gram Selma  08-20-07

 

Jamie Pierce (Horton, AL)  Daughter of Wonda and Mark Pierce died recently in an automobile accident.  Jamie loved attending powwows. Jamie help edit the Misty Mountain News. She is survived by two daughters, Heaven and Echo.  Please keep the family in your prayers.  Jennifer Whitefeather Attaway  08-07-07

 

Corbin Harney (TurtleIsland). Corbin Harney Spiritual Leader of the Western Shoshone Nation crossed over at 11:00 a.m. this morning in a house on a sacred mountain near Santa Rosa, CA (Turtle Island). He had dedicated his life to fighting the nuclear testing and dumping.

That battle claimed his life through cancer.
Corbin also authored two books: “The Way It Is: One Water, One Air, One Earth” (Blue Dolphin Publishing, 1995) and a forthcoming book, “The Nature Way”. Numerous documentaries have been made about his work and message. July 10, 2007  http://www.shundahai.org/index.html#statement
 

Andrew “Andy” Moody (Johnson City, WV) 85, a Monacan Indian dropped his "robes" July 1, 2007. He was a lifelong resident of Johnson City and a veteran of the US Army serving in World War II in the 35th Combat Engineers Regiment and Battalion.  He received a Purple Heart. He was a faithful and longtime member of the Locust Street Church of Christ where he had served as a Deacon. Mr. Moody was in the construction business for many years. He was a well-known swimmer at the Legion Street pool for many years and had never met anyone who he was not friendly to. He will be greatly missed by all who knew him.  ~Helen RedWing 07-04-07
 


 


Prayer Needed - Sickness, Injury, Troubles...

 

Shanan (Florida) Need to ask for serious prayers for Shanan again. We asked for them during her pregnancy with her now two month old son......as she had to have risky surgery done while she was still carrying him.  Thursday she will undergo radical surgery.  She is thirty 36 years young with her first baby.  Prayers and energy are welcomed. Thank you one and all   Gram Selma 08-29-07

 

Jay King (West Virginia) (UPDATE) We took Jay to ER with stomach pain and difficulty breathing. Jay has heart problems and needs your prayers.    Ruth King 05-01-07

 

Jay has a large gall stone and is having panic attacks. He was seen in the ER twice this week. He will be going in the hospital this week to have the gallstones taken out. Love and prayers,  Barb Sun Dove  08-18-07

 

Daniel Seven Hawk Eyes Hoffman (Springfield, IL)  Grandfather Hawk underwent his fifth surgery today on his foot. "I am recuperating with the help of some heavy duty medication mostly sitting on my DUFF."  We pray for his speedy recovery.  ~Bear 08-15-07

 

Manataka Prayer Warriors: Mama Possum in Hawaii says lava flows, hurricane and earthquake creating much suffering. The earthquake was 5.3 on the scale.  Her last statement was "Please pray for Hawaii!"  Helen Redwing Vinson 08-14-17

 

Shelton Robinson (Cordova, TN) Please pray for my sister in law and her husband  Elaine and Shelton Robinson  Shelton was diagnosed with prostrate cancer. Helen Red Wing Vinson 08-14-07

 

Good news.  Shelton's cancer is contained.  It is a Type T1cNoMo, Stage 6 (out of 10).  Will be back in full swing in 6 weeks.  God is good!  ~Elaine 08-17-07

 

 

Mackenzie Shane (Emmaus, PA) Great granddaughter born premature has a tube to breathe and a feeding tube in her.  She still only weighs 11 lb. at 13 months-old. She is fighting for her life. She cannot eat or breath in her own.  Please pray for her.  Carol Spirit Dove Henderson 08-03-07

 

Catherine Halash (Battle Creek, MI) I've had 2 very near misses during the month of July and I ask for your thought, prayers, and smoke on the wind to help in this hour of need. I thank the Creator for the time he has given me and the joy of each day, especially those beyond 11/06, my expected expiration date.  A sore on my leg wouldn't heal and became septic, I became dehydrated, and the kidney stones became unbearable between.  I had an anaphylactic shock and near miss  08-03-07

 

Erwin Gordan - Grandfather Gordy (a.k.a. Sonny - (Seneca Nation) This is to let folks know is doing after his second leg amputation. He's still at Benedictine Hospital, in rehab, room #2407. His spirits are good. He was flirting like crazy with the pretty nurse. She gave him Vitamin C, and he said he's heard of the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Adriatic Sea, but he doesn't know about any Vitamin Sea. So I guess he's feeling better. Looks like he'll be in the hospital for another 2-3 weeks, then probably the nursing home in Margaretville for another couple of weeks, then back home.  Henrietta Wise 08-06-07

 

Debi Redhawk Pulido - Many aches and pains from broken leg.  Doing better.  08-06-07

 

Betty (Will Blueotter's wife - Utah) She had a stroke in early July, and is recovering slowly. She had been ill since early 2005. Lost the sight in her right eye due to a stroke in her eye in early April, and started having blood pressure spikes and had a stroke while in hospital.  ~Will Blueotter 07-12-07

 

Dobby Sommer (CA) I am honored to be in the Healing Basket.  More and more pain reminds me of the next surgery coming up and gratitude reminds me of the gift of being on this earth. What a Blessing that we are here Under The One Sky.Thank you for thinking of me.  Wakantanka Niya Waste Pelo  May The Great Holy Mystery Spirit Bless You!. ~Bear 07-04-07

 

Michael (Gainesville, FL) All prayers needed at this time.  Michael is going to have open heart surgery.  We need prayer fires and ceremony that you are led to take this to Creator.  Veterans Side of Shands Teaching Hospital. Please keep him and his close. Cindy his grown daughter and his 80 + mom and dad along with a younger brother.  Gram Selma 06-21-07

 

Francisco Leonidas (Phoenix, AZ) Please pray for the complete healing of my unborn son Leonidas. I pray that his heart and brain are healthy and whole and function perfectly in every capacity. i also pray that the amneocentisis test we had on 6/18 will reflect his perfect health and normal chromosones. I was told  yesterday that the cyst /fluid is not growing, but he is which is good, and that his kicking is a great sign of increased energy. Meet with a pediatric heart surgeon, one of the best in the world - Nicole 06-20-07 

 

On Sunday June 24 @ 1:30 am, I went into pre-mature labor, We went to the hospital and tried unsuccessfully to stop my contractions. @ 10am Francisco "Leo" Leonidas Laborin was born 6 weeks early @ 16 inches and 4lbs 11 oz. This corageous little lion, with premature lungs, let  out a few roars for his mommy and daddy. This precious angel passed 2 hours later. We and Leo's family got to hold, kiss, and talk to him as much as we needed. He was so perfect.  Thank you all for your prayers, Nicole

 

 

Helen RedWing Vinson (Tennessee)  RedWing developed a serious problem with her eyesight. " I have floaters like an octopus in my left eye.  My right eye lost some of its sight already, but nothing like this.  Graybeard Vinson  05-23-07

 

About 3 weeks ago I lost 80% of my vision due to eye hemorrhage.  I went back to eye doctor this past Wednesday He was well pleased with the healing of my eye told me to come back in 3 months. I know they gave the test and the shot in my eye but it was God who did the healing and gave knowledge to someone to make the medication to clear this up.. So I thanked the doctor but most of all I thank God and the sisters for the prayers.  Love  and Prayers RW

 

Robby Stamps (Tallahassee, FL) Terribly ill and bedridden for about a year with Lyme Disease and cannot tolerate conventional treatment and needs round-the-clock care. Please help. Visit www.helprobbystamps.com  ~ Julie Maltagliati  05-15-07 

 

Isabel Stands Different McLaughlin (New York) Recovering second operation because a titanium plate in her throat would not let her breathe. Now they removed it. Has serious back problems, and anxiety. Many, many thanks to Manataka for all the prayers. Standing Bear 05-06-07
 

 


 

 Memorials...

In Memory of Corbin Harney

Corbin Harney Spiritual Leader of the Western Shoshone Nation who dedicated his life to fighting the nuclear testing and dumping.  He loved and cared for his family, friends and all creation.

 

In Memory of Granny Messenger

She had over 1,000 grandchildren but never a child. Her memory will live with us forever.  Anonymous Contributor  

 

In Memory of Lance Selvidge

Webster’s definition of a Martyr:  1:  A person who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a belief.  2: A person who sacrifices something of great value, especially life itself for the sake of principle.  Lance, we are all better because you walked this world, we will all become better because you look back with eyes from the angels world. Thank You.  The Selvidge Family. Little River Rock.

 

In Memory of Ruby Gilliham

We will always remember this gracious and beautiful woman in our hearts.  She will remain a part of Manataka forever - Standing Bear.  Greg Gilliham, Little Rock

 

 


 

Did you submit a prayer request above?  If so, please send us an update. 

We are reluctant to remove anyone without knowing if more prayers are needed. 

 


 

MANATAKA ANNOUNCEMENTS...

 

Manataka Seeks Grant Writer

A wonderful lady who has experience and good spirit has volunteered to be a grant writer for Manataka.  We still need at least one more. 

 

MAIC has several worthwhile projects that are severely under-funded.  Two of the projects are of unique design and proven effectiveness.  For the past 10 years, all programs and services were self-funded by members and supporters and we have not applied for financial assistance.  The worthiness of these programs requires more funds than can realistically be provided by individual contributions.  Experienced grant writers please contact: manataka@sbcglobal.net  

 

Manataka Seeks Advisory Board Members

Elders approved a motion to establish an Advisory Board who will research and develop recommendations to the Elder Council.  MAIC specifically seeks educators, attorneys, accountants, business leaders and other professionals to join the MAIC Advisory Board.  Please contact: manataka@sbcglobal.net

 


 

AUGUST 2007 ELDER COUNCIL MEETING

 

The August meeting was held on the 19th and started at 9:00 a.m.  A quorum was established with all members present.  Prayer ceremony were led by David Quiet Wind Furr.       

 

Discussions:

  • Elder Council Appointments - Three individuals were discussed 

  • Report on Fall Gathering - Arrangements for closed gathering 

  • Event Ceremony Protocols - Ceremonies in the Sacred Circle to be led by Patty Blue Star.    

  • Manataka invitation with US Congressional representatives

  • Manataka trademark registration progress report  

  • Elder Council Organization  

 Tabled Discussions and Motions:

  • MASELA (Manataka Ambassador to Spiritual Elders of Latin America) Project.  

  • Asset Acquisition project - Manataka American Indian Cultural Center.

Approved Motions: 

  • Motion to change the format of the Fall Gathering unanimously approved.

  • The September Spirit Keeper Award will be given to Bobby Joe Runninbear for exemplary service. 

Rejected Motions:

None 

 

Presentations:

None

 

Announcements: 

Next meeting to be held September 12, 2007 starting at 9 a.m. hosted by Patty Blue Star.

 

Meeting adjourned at 12:00 p.m.

 


A detailed report was delivered during the regular membership meeting held on the same date. 

 


MANATAKA ORGANIZATIONAL MESSAGES


 

NOTICE 1:    ELDER COUNCIL POSITION FILLED:  A formal announcement of selection Robert King Gray Hawk King and induction ceremonies were held July 15.   

 

NOTICE 2:     ELDER COUNCIL ADVISORY BOARD:  We are excepting nominations for five (5) positions on the Elder Council Advisory Board.  We are specifically looking for candidates in these fields:  Accounting, Business, Education, Law and Social Services.  Positions are not limited only to these fields.  Members are expected to donate 5-10 hours per month. Members of the Advisory Board are paid a stipend and travel expense to annual meetings.  

 

NOTICE 3:    FOOD BASKETS NEEDED NOW!  people are hungry often throughout the year.  Please bring or send non-perishable food items. Gift cards for food from Walmart, Safeway and other stores are great. 

 

NOTICE 4:    REGULAR MEMBERSHIP MEETINGS - 1:00 p.m., 3rd Sunday each month at Gulpha Gorge.  In case of inclement weather (rain, sleet, snow, below 40 degrees) we meet Ryan's Restaurant located at 4538 Central Avenue across from Hot Springs Mall.

 

Gatherings are normally held on the 3rd weekend of June (closest to the Summer Solstice) and the 3rd weekend of October (closest to the Winter Solstice).  The date of the Spring Encampment varies from year to year.  The Spring Encampment will be held April 13 -15 in 2007.

 

NOTICE 5:    WOMEN’S COUNCIL MEETINGS - 11:30 a.m., 1st Saturday each month.  Contact: Becky Moore

 

NOTICE 6:    PAID YOUR DUES?
Now is a good time to support the many programs, services and events of MAIC. We can always use a donation. Pay by check or credit card online. It's easy, secure and fast!   Click Here  Or send to: MAIC, PO Box 476, Hot Springs, AR 71902

 

NOTICE 7:      MATERIAL DONATIONS NEEDED BY MANATAKA
1.  15 - 30 gallon plastic storage boxes with lids.

 

2.  LAND -  Donate land to be used as financing leverage for to build a cultural center. Any size/location is acceptable. Tax benefits may apply.

 

3.  MEMORIAL GIFTS - When a friend or relative passes, honor their memory and send a tax deductible  contribution to MAIC and we will send the family a beautiful letter and memorial certificate in your name.

 

THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO DONATED STAMPS, PAPER AND OTHER SUPPLIES!


 

TO UNSUBSCRIBE:  Simply click the reply button, 

type 'Unsubscribe'  in the subject line and send.

 


Publisher:

Manataka American Indian Council
PO Box 476
Hot Springs, AR 71902-0476
501-627-0555
manataka@sbcglobal.net
http://www.manataka.org

Editor:

Lee Standing Bear Moore

MAIC Correspondents:

Jennifer Attaway, Alabama

Sheri Burnett, Georgia

Crystal Harvey, Arkansas

Carol Henderson

Hawk With Seven Eyes Hoffman, Illinois

Grandmother Selma, Florida

Bennie LeBeau, Wyoming

Julie Maltagliati, Florida

Magdala, Arkansas

Bobby Joe Runninbear, Tennessee 

Helen Red Wing Vinson, Tennessee

Liora Leah Zack, California

Paula Unega Ulogidv Phillips, Arkansas

Waynonaha Two Worlds

Contributors:

Susan Bates, Missouri

David Cornsilk, Oklahoma

Don Coyhis

Andrea Crambit, California

Bonnie Two Owl Feathers Delcourt, New Hampshire 

Valerie Eagle Heart

Maxine Elisi Swan Dancer Fulgham

Romaine Garcia, Colorado

John James, Arkansas

Mark and Carla Maslin, New Mexico

Elaine Nowell, Mississippi / Arkansas

Corina Roberts, California

Scott Treaty

Linda VanBibber, Missouri

 

 

Disclaimer:

Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary
gain to those who have expressed an interest in viewing the
material for research and educational purposes.

This is in accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. section 107.

Reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law.

http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html
Non-profit/Teaching/Educational

 

 

 

SEPTEMBER 2007 SMOKE SIGNAL - PAGE 1

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